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  • Ingerstad, Kalle
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Social Sciences.
    Oja, Nicholas
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Social Sciences.
    Barn och unga i 3 § LVU-domar: Att dömas till att skyddas från sig själv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish child welfare and compulsory care for children and adolescents has been discussed and problematized by most researchers and been statutory since the beginning of the 20th century. The law and the way Swedish society views problem behavior, child and adolescent delinquency and the need to care and protect the children with such needs has changed over time. For example, the dominant view, before the 20th century, was that society had a certain obligation to protect and help children and young in need, but rather was characterized by a community-protection approach. What society considers to be a problem behavior has changed over time and been corrected multiple times within the law. How people agree on what is a normal or problematic behavior, when it comes to children and adolescents, is through social processes and language. Through our common social processes and languages we construct a common reality to which we can relate. Legislation as such is a man-made construction of what we commonly consider to be the norms that we should follow. Therefore, we find it interesting to understand how children and adolescents problem behavior is expressed, produced or concretized in judgments relating to compulsory care. 

    The purpose of the study is to investigate how a child’s or young person’s problem behaviors and protection needs are constructed in judgments relating to 3 § of the care of young people (special provision) act (LVU). In order to answer the purpose of the study the following questions should be asked; what problem behaviors and protection needs are constructed in judgments relating to care under 3 § of the LVU?

    A qualitative approach has been used to answer the study’s purpose and questions. The empirical study consists of 33 court judgments between 2012 and 2017 from one specific municipality. The theoretical basis of the study is social constructionism and thematic analysis is used as an analytical tool. The study is analyzed on the basis of social constructivist theory and supported by research from, to name a few, Johanna Schiratzki, Anna Hollander, Astrid Schlytter, Lina Ponnert, Pernilla Leviner and Titti Mattsson. 

    The results of the study indicate that the problem behavior and protection needs of children and young people are constructed through the LVU-legislation process and that the social construction begins with the Social Welfare Committee's LVU investigation and application for care with the support of LVU. The result also shows that law most often approves of the Social Welfare Committee's application compulsory care. In the empirical material of the study, only two applications were rejected. The study's final chapter discusses the conclusions of the study, but also on further research on the construction of children and young people's problem behavior and protection needs.

  • Odelius, Nina
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Social Sciences.
    På samma planhalva: En fallstudie om socionomens roll och möjlighet till inflytande inom det tvärprofessionella teamarbetet i en hälso- och sjukvårdsorganisation2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Titel: Working on the same conditions - A case study on the role of social workers and the ability to influence within the cross-professional teamwork in a healthcare organization.

    The purpose of this study has been to describe and understand the role and influence of social workers in the cross-professional teamwork within a healthcare organization. The study has been conducted as a case study with qualitative semistructured interviews with seven professionals in the organization, three of which are social workers. The material has been analyzed using previous research and through a theoretical reference framework where I chose to use three key concepts; role, influence and teamwork. Previous research shows that the legitimacy of the social worker is low in comparison to other professions in healthcare, which is also affected by the fact that members of other professions find it hard to understand what the role of social work within health care is. Social workers have in several studies indicated that they feel a need to defend their social position. Research has also shown that many state that it is the physician in the team who determines the working climate and ability to jointly respect the occupational groups. The result of this study shows an organization where the cross-professional work is part of the very essence of the business. Social workers have the same opportunity for influence within the organization as other professions, and is valued based on the unique knowledge that forms an essential part of the business. The role of the social worker is also clear to other teammembers. Therefore this study shows an organization in which the role and opportunity of influence for social workers is affected very positively in relation to previous research. The study also shows that there are challenges in the organization's activities. These concern issues of stress and to have sufficient capacity, which informants realate to a company in rapid development.

  • Forsanker Duvaldt, Lisa
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Social Sciences.
    Vilken profession vet bäst?: En diskursanalys om juristens och socionomens bedömning om barns bästa i vårdnadsdomar2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to analyse the child custody enquiry with the custody judgements form the family law department and the court when the proposition for resolution and the decision is not concistent. The study aim to examine in what way the judge (lawyer) consider themselves to have a better decision in the family cases than the family law caseworker (the social worker) when the two professions do not agree. Is it the judicial intepretation done by the family law caseworker that is wrong, or is it the necessary prerequisite and other legal opinions which occours in the texts? Does the judge have better knowledge to assess the best interests of children than the family law caseworker? How do the two professions in the written language distinguish themselves about their own space of action?

    The study has analyzed judgments and custody enquires with discourse analysis as a method of highlighting the professional problem that the study aims to investigate. Three different custody enquires with district court cases have been examined. In one case there is also a judgement from the court of appeal.

    The conclusions that emerge in the comparisons of the material are that there is greater self-assurance of the lawyer in the action room in pursuit of his or her profession, in comparison with the social worker. The written language is treated in different ways and with different degrees of self-esteem and security in claims, depending on the profession.

  • Björklund, Alexandra
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Hammarström, Sara
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Låt mig bara få dö: En litteraturöversikt om patienter med en terminal sjukdom som uttryckt en önskan om dödshjälp i livets slutskede2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Lifespan in society is constantly increasing with the constant development of technology and medicine, at the same time there is an increasing number of people living with severe diseases and suffering. The palliative care in Sweden aim to alleviate multifaceted suffering at the end of life. More and more countries in the world are legalizing euthanasia. Euthanasia is not legal in Sweden but the subject is constantly present through debates in which euthanasia is discussed from different point of views and through ethical aspects. Although euthanasia is not legal, there are patients who are requesting euthanasia.

    Aim: The aim was to identify factors and experiences that lead to terminally ill patients at the end of life request euthanasia.

    Method: A literature review including ten qualitative scientific original articles from PubMed and Cinahl COMPLETE.

    Results: Two main themes were identified, autonomy and suffering. Sub theme to autonomy was right to decide over one's own death and die with dignity. The sub themes to suffering were pain, losses and burden.

    Discussion: The results were discussed with help of Beauchamp and Childress ethical principles. Patients request euthanasia primarily because of pain and from the experience of being a burden. However, if these are alleviated, the desire for euthanasia can cease. Self-determination and quality of life are important factors for patients to maintain at the end of life.

  • Larsson, Ammie
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Social Sciences.
    Patienters upplevelse av att personal använder egna erfarenheter av ätstörningar som en resurs i vårdarbetet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study is about patients' experience of the advantages and disadvantages of staff using their own experience of eating disorders as a resource in the care work. The gathering if empiric was conducted in the form of eight qualitative interviews where the researcher interviewed patients undergoing treatment for eating disorders. All interviewees have previously been in contact with staff who have their own experience of eating disorders. The subject of the study is analyzed based on theoretical themes such as experience knowledge, understanding, treatment, identification, being a role model, over-identification, countertransference and self-disclosure.

    The results show that there are several benefits that staff use their own experience of eating disorders. This staff may, among other things, provide a special resource in the field of care, namely experience knowledge, which is a type of knowledge individuals can’t learn by reading, so other staff do not possess this knowledge. Patients also find that staff with their own experiences of eating disorders have a better understanding of their disease situation and can help patients to understand themselves better, by explaining why they think, feel or act in a certain way. Patients also describe that these staff treat them better, in a certain way that they make the patients feel less vulnerable in their care-seeking position and has the ability to see the disease from an individual perspective instead of being based solely on the diagnosis's characteristics. Participants find that they can identify themselves whit the staff's disease experience and travel to recovery, which leads to that the patients more easily receive this personals message. Patients can see employees with their own experience of eating disorders as role models, because they managed to get healthy and resist eating disorders. This staff also has the ability to reduce the patient's sense of shame about the disease, because the employee self has been ill previously.

    The study's results also show that there are disadvantages to staff using their own experience of eating disorders in the care word. On disadvantage is when staff work is affected by over-identification, which is expressed in terms of staff assuming things that do not match patient's disease state based on their own disease experiences, which causing the patient to feel frustrated. The countertransference of the staff can also affect how they design the treatment because these personal have an emotional link to the disease, which may result that it is more difficult to make demands to the patient. Patients also describe that staffs’ self-disclosure may adversely affect their treatment if the staff tells something about their own previous disease experience that can give the patient new eating ideas or be triggering. Alternatively, the staff focus too much on telling their own experiences instead of focusing on the patient's treatment. If the self-disclosure of the staff is perceived to be unprofessional in the patient's eyes, it may cause that the patient will be doubtful about their professional competence. 

  • Blomqvist, Maja
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Social Sciences.
    Sundin, Tove
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Social Sciences.
    En polisanmälan i grundskolan - för barnets bästa?: En kvalitativ studie om skolkuratorers perspektiv och erfarenheter2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today it is common for Swedish compulsory schools to write police reports about incidents caused by pupils below the age of criminal responsibility. 

    The purpose of this study was to examine school counselors perspective on police reports in compulsory schools, in order to describe and understand the role they play in assessing. Another purpose was to examine whether the school counselors believe that a police report is consistent with the principle of the best interests of the child and if they believe that a police report affects the child.

    The study is based on qualitative semi-structured interviews with eight school counselors in both municipal and independent schools in Stockholm county. The material from the interviews has been analyzed using professional theory, labeling theory and selected literature. The result shows that school counselors see police reports of children as a complex phenomenon and that they have an ambivalent attitude towards the application. The school counselors’ experience is that police reports can affect the child both positively and negatively. Positive experiences are described as a child's unwanted behavior can come to an end. Negative experiences are described as the fact that the police-reported child can get a label as an outlier, which in the long run can lead to negative consequences for the child. Furthermore, the result shows that the principle of the best interests of the child, according to the school counselors, is that children reach the knowledge goals in school. School counselors does not seem to have reflected on whether school-related police notifications are consistent with the principle of the best interests of the child. The majority, however, have a negative attitude towards police reports towards children in compulsory schools and mean that there are other, better ways to work with children's unwanted actions. Despite the fact that the school counselors express that police reports may adversely affect the child, the study shows that they are rarely involved when a decision is made to report a child to the police. 

    Through his profession, social workers have an assignment to represent children in vulnerable situations and should therefore carrier for the best interests of the child. The fact that school counselors do not participate in the assessment and thus do not represent the child is considered problematic. It appears that the school counselors look at their function and are loyal to the school organization rather than to attend to their assignment as social workers. Finally, the result shows that more knowledge is needed about the role of the school counselor, as well as the phenomenon of police reports toward children in compulsory schools and what their consequences are for the children.

  • Jonsson, Lisa
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Social Sciences.
    Lind, Matilda
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Social Sciences.
    Ett annat perspektiv på våld i nära relationer: En litteraturstudie rörande sambandet mellan våld i parrelationer och våld mot husdjur2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The link between domestic violence and violence against pets has been a topic in international research over the past two decades. Yet, in Sweden it is a relatively unexplored field that many professionals lack knowledge about. Existing research, however, demonstrates that this link can have serious consequences for people exposed for domestic violence. The purpose of this study is to increase the knowledge of the link between domestic violence and violence against pets, with the ambition that this knowledge will develop the social work with domestic violence victims. To fulfill our purpose we carried out a literature study in which 14 research articles were compiled and analysed, each dealing with the link in question. Our results show that violence against pets can be understood as part of the violence that take place in intimate relationships. This is explained by the emotional attachment that often exists between the domestic violence victim and their pets, an attachment that is being used by the perpetrator to exercise power and control. The results also show that, often, social work practices lack support and protection that include pets, which in turn makes it harder for the victim to walk out of the violent relationship. The reason why researchers as well as social workers have difficulties seeing the link between domestic violence and violence against pets, is explained by the specialisation and professionalisation within the welfare state, which has contributed to a division of different forms of violence. Moreover, the idea that animals are objects rather than individuals in their own right is also an important factor. On the basis of the results of this study, we argue that further research is needed, regarding this link, not least within Sweden. This would make Swedish social work better equipped regarding support and protection for domestic violence victims with pets. We also leave suggestions for future research, as to examine how the link is manifested within other intimate relationships than heterosexual ones and how the experience regarding the link is expressed by domestic violence victims who have yet not seeked professional help.

  • Barud, Liselott
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Hur sjuksköterskor förbereder sig inför oplanerade hembesök till patienter de aldrig träffat.: En intervjustudie med sjuksköterskor inom Avancerad Sjukvård I Hemmet2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Att arbeta som sjuksköterska inom Avancerad Sjukvård I Hemmet (ASIH) innebär möten med patienter som har en rad olika livshotande diagnoser. Som en del av det dagliga arbetet ingår att kunna vara tillgänglig för patienten vid försämringar. Detta innebär att sjuksköterskor kan komma att med kort varsel behöva göra oplanerade hembesök till patienter de aldrig träffat.

    Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva hur sjuksköterskor som arbetar inom ASIH-verksamhet i Stockholms län förbereder sig inför oplanerade hembesök till patienter de aldrig träffat.

    Metod: För att ta reda på och beskriva hur sjuksköterskor förbereder sig inför oplanerade hembesök valdes en kvalitativ design med en induktiv ansats. Åtta sjuksköterskor med i genomsnitt 8,5 års erfarenhet från arbete inom ASIH intervjuades. Materialet analyserades enligt en kvalitativ induktiv innehållsanalys.

    Resultat: Analysen resulterade i två huvudkategorier: I ständig beredskap och När någon larmat. I ständig beredskap har två kategorier och fem underkategorier vilka beskriver sådant som ingår i det dagliga arbetet samtidigt som det även är förberedelser inför oplanerade hembesök. Dessa förberedelser kan vara att ha ordning på sin utrustning och att hålla sig informerad om inskrivna patienter. När någon larmat har två kategorier och sex underkategorier vilka beskriver förberedelser som görs efter att ett samtal som föranleder ett oplanerat hembesök inkommit. Dessa förberedelser innebär till exempel att sjuksköterskorna tar reda på så mycket som möjligt om patienten för att kunna bilda sig en uppfattning om vad som behöver göras och hur bråttom det är.

    Diskussion: Resultatet diskuteras i förhållande till annan forskning samt till de tre grundläggande delarna begriplighet, hanterbarhet och meningsfullhet, i Antonovskys salutogena modell KASAM, känsla av sammanhang.

  • Sylvendahl, Marie Lee
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Diaconal Studies, Church Music and Theology.
    Musikandning som stöd vid sorg: En kvalitativ studie om musikandning kan användas som stöd för återhämtning vid sorg2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med arbetet är att undersöka hur musikandning kan användas och fungera som stöd för återhämtning vid sorg inom en avgränsad grupp människor, för att få ett underlag till en kritisk reflektion över denna form av stöd i en sorgeprocess.

    Mina vägledande frågor har varit:

    • Vad i musikandning kan hjälpa människor i en sorgeprocess?
    • Hur hjälper metoden och finns det något som tyder på att den kan tillämpas generellt?    

    I bakgrundskapitlet presenteras sorgeprocessens olika faser, tidigare forskningsarbeten och litteratur om musik, hjärnan och hälsa, samt den terapeutiska effekt musik och andning kan ha genom lindrandet av smärta. Meditationsandning har en gynnsam effekt på nervsystemet då det är stressdämpande och främjar balansen mellan det aktiva (sympatikus) och det återhämtande (parasympatikus) nervsystemen. Därefter följer en introduktion till musikterapi, GIM (Guided Imagery and Music), Musikandning som är en tillämpning av GIM, samt teorier anknutna till Musikandning.

    Som forskningsmetod har kvalitativa utvärderingar använts samt ett självskattningformulär med frågor baserade på Världshälsoorganisationens (WHO:s) ’Livskvalitetsskala’. Jag har tillsammans med Dag Körlin, som utvecklat metoden, genomfört två musikandningskurser som del av min fortbildning och Österhaninge församlings/Haninge pastorats fortsatta sörjandestöd. Sju deltagare ur församlingens tidigare sorgegrupper har fullföljt denna kurs bestående av fem gruppsessioner. Samtalen i dessa sessioner har  transkriberats, bearbetats och analyserats. I metodkapitlet har jag sammanställt en fallbeskrivning per deltagare med deras minnesbilder, en sammanfattning av kursutvärderingen och utfallet av självskattningen. I diskussionskapitlet jämförs studiens resultat med de teorier och den tidigare forskning som presenterats i bakgrundskapitlet.

    I resultatkapitlet och analysbearbetningen framkom det att flertalet deltagare hade blivit hjälpta av musikandningskursen. För att svara sammanfattat på mina vägledande frågor i inledningskapitlet på vad som kan hjälpa så tycks den lugnande effekten av andningen och musiken ha gett mer energi i vardagslivet, förbättrad sömn och en positivare syn på framtiden enligt självskattningsresultaten. Då den drabbade och sörjande utsätts för en extra psykisk stress är det extra viktigt med möjlighet till återhämtning. Pendlandet mellan förlustorienterade och återuppbyggnadsorienterade känslor och aktiviter är normalt och man bör se till att kunna hämta energi och göra det man mår bra av för att återhämta sig och kunna stå i svårigheterna. Hur musikandningsmetoden har hjälpt deltagarna är att genom medveten andningsträning aktivera den återhämtande delen av nervsystemet, parasympatikus som minskar stressnivåerna i kroppen och hjälper balansen mellan de mentala och kroppsliga resurser.  Flera av deltagarna har visat en stärkt  inre stabilisering, där de har kunnat hantera sin affektreglering (känsloreglering) till det bättre och därmed skapat förutsättningar för ett inre lugn och en självtillit att de är uthålliga och klarar av svårigheten. Ett tecken på integrationen av sorgeprocessens både förlustorienterade och återuppbyggande känslor.

    Musiken ger också ett ytterligare element som påverkar hela hjärnan. Den kan väcka latenta känslor, verka som en trygg plats och pocka på motstridiga känslor. Det finns en stor potential i musikens kraft till mobilisering av inre resurser och den stressdämpande och smärtlindrande effekt som musiken visats ha. Musikvalen är viktiga då dess kvalitet och egenskaper som rytm, upprepning och karaktär hjälper andningen att bli grundad och stimulerar till imaginationer, minnesbilder och affekt.       

    Vad vi kunde observera var våra deltagare drabbade av normal sorg (till skillnad från komplicerad sorg, se sorgens definition i bakgrundskapitlet). Av det som presenterats i bakgrundskapitlet och teoretiskt ramverk för uttryckande konstterapi, så framkom följande från deltagarna: arketypiska urbilder ofta av naturen; en cyklisk rörelse mellan positiva och negativa upplevelser ofta i form av färg;  ett toleransfönster där både det svåra och hoppfulla kunde finnas som tyder på mobilserandet av egna inre skyddsmurar och psykologiska resurser.  Även transpersonliga och andliga upplevelser förekom, en deltagare uttryckte att ‘lyssna på musiken är som att uppleva andlighet i kroppen’. Avslutningsvis förs diskussioner kring arbetets betydelse och fortsatta studier inom området.

  • Gillensjö, Tina
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Jakobsson, Emelie
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Att beskriva vilka faktorer som påverkar sjuksköterskans attityd till att vårda patienter med alkoholmissbruk: En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Alkoholmissbrukare är en patientgrupp sjuksköterskor möter i det dagliga arbetet. Alkoholmissbruk leder till fysiska, psykiska och sociala problem. Sjuksköterskors attityder och kunskaper är av stor vikt för att bemöta och vårda patienter med ett alkoholmissbruk.

    Syfte: Att beskriva vilka faktorer som påverkar sjuksköterskans attityd till att vårda patienter med alkoholmissbruk.

    Metod: Denna litteraturöversikt har grundats i vetenskapliga artiklar som har bearbetats och analyserats. Översikten bygger på tre kvalitativa artiklar, sex kvantitativa artiklar samt en artikel som haft mixad metod.

    Resultat: Resultatet visar att sjuksköterskors attityder till att vårda alkoholmissbrukare är ambivalent. Sjuksköterskans attityder är kopplat till ålder, livserfarenheter, arbetslivserfarenheter samt vilken vårdavdelning sjuksköterskan arbetar på. Det framkommer hur sjuksköterskor efterlyser mer utbildning och kunskap för att ge alkoholmissbrukare adekvat vård.

    Diskussion: Bemötandet och vårdrelationen är av stor vikt för vårdandet av alkoholmissbrukare. Sjuksköterskorna är i behov av mer kunskap och utbildning för att attityderna till denna patientgrupp ska vara positiv. Det är av vikt att se personen bakom missbruket och att attityderna till missbrukarna överensstämmer med synen på alkoholmissbruk. Synen på alkoholmissbruket har genom tiderna förändrats, där alkoholmissbruket nu är klassat som en sjukdom, men stigmatiseringen av dessa personer fortgår.

  • Börjesson, Camilla
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att vårda personer med demenssjukdom i livets sista tid: en intervjustudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Palliative care is a care provided when cure is not possible and the focus will be supportive, focusing on holistic care according to the four cornerstones, symptom relief, teamwork, support to caregivers and communication. Dementia is a collective name and a diagnosis of a number of symptoms caused by brain damage. Dementia is usually divided into three phases where the third is described as severe and when the sick approaches the final phase of life, and palliative care should be the obvious focus on care to relieve symptoms and increase the quality of life for this patient group. The care of the dementia should be done with a person-centered approach where the life story help nurses and caregivers to make nursing more personal.

    Aim: The purpose of the study was to investigate and describe nurses' role and experiences of caring for persons with dementia in the last days of life.

    Method: The method chosen was a qualitative interview study with descriptive design. Nine nurses were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire and the material was analyzed with qualitative content analysis.

    Results: The outcome of the interviews resulted in two categories of The nurse has a supporting role and the nurse and teamwork, and were detailed in eight sub-categories where the nurses experience describes that they regard themselves as supportive and inventive. But also that it is fun, responsibly and difficult.

    Discussion: Parts of the result has been discussed based on current research and McCormack & McCance's (2006) mid-range theory for person-centred nursing. The result was that the nurses' experiences of caring are based on a person-centred approach.

  • Serko, Sawin
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Johansson, Sofia
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Patienters upplevelser av vård och bemötande i samband med MRSA-smitta: en litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Meticillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a bacteria that is resistant to a variety of antibiotics. This bacteria has increased both in Sweden and worldwide. Previously, the spread of MRSA was common in hospitals, but has recently become more common outside the healthcare sector. To be infected with MRSA often involves severe infectious such as pneumonia, urinary tract infection and sepsis. To minimize the spread of MRSA, patients are moved to isolation, which can result in suffering.

    To shed light on the experiences of MRSA-infected patients’ interactions with healthcare professionals.

    This literature review is based on ten scientifically reviewed articles, nine are qualitative and one is quantitative. The scientific articles have been carefully reviewed and from there have a summary with the themes to the result, been formed. Databases CINAHL Complete, PubMed and Academic Search Complete have been used.

    Based on the ten articles, four themes summarized the patient's experiences. These are listed under the following headings: Healthcare, and relatives response to patients with MRSA, Psychological trauma, Negative and positive experiences of insulation, and Knowledge of patients and healthcare professionals.

    Katie Eriksson's theory on suffering is discussed with the result, based on patient's perspective. One of the nurses' central role in nursing work is preventing contagious spread of MRSA, primarily through basic hand hygiene routines. Our results indicate that there are factors that may affect patients' views on the care of MRSA. Where many patients experience that healthcare professionals lack knowledge about spread of infection, infections and isolation restrictions.

  • Söderström, Isabelle
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Wahlsten, Caroline
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Sexualitet i relation till Multipel skleros: en litteraturöversikt med fokus på sexualitetens påverkan vid Multipel skleros2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Multiple sclerosis, MS, is an autoimmune, neurological, chronic disease that affects the whole central nervous system. The course of the disease is different from one person to another and therefore is unpredictable.

    Aim: The aim was to highlight the experiences of sexuality in adult patients with multiple sclerosis and the factors that may affect it.

    Method: The method of the essay was an integrated literature review, based on ten articles of which eight quantitative and two qualitative.

    Results: The result is summarized in three different themes Physical Symptoms, Depression and The impact on relationships and the sex life. The result showed that persons with MS often experienced some form of sexual problems in terms of physical, mental and social aspects. Between 44–82.5 percent of all participants in all studies included in this literary review had sexual dysfunction, SD. Several participants stated that SD had a negative impact on their sex life.

    Discussion: The discussion is divided into two parts: method discussion where the method for this essay will be discussed and result discussion where the results will be discussed based on Callista Roy’s adaptation model. Also, aspects of the importance for nurses when meeting patients with MS are highlighted.

  • Dahlberg, Anna
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Social Sciences.
    Erfarenheter av att få avslag om sjukpenning: en kvalitativ studie om hur avslag om sjukpenning från Försäkringskassan påverkar personer med stressrelaterad psykisk ohälsa2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stress-related disorders have increased and accounts for the longest duration of sick leave. Changes in the health insurance system and decisions to reduce the sick-leave have had consequences such as an increased number of rejection of sickness benefits.

    The aim of this study was to investigate the experience for people having a stress-related disorder and being rejected sickness benefits from the Social Insurance Fund, to describe and understand the importance for their disease image and recovery. The study is qualitative and has been conducted through semistructured interviews with five participants who suffered from stress-related disorders and received a refusal of sickness benefits from the Social Insurance Fund. The material gathered through the interviews has been analyzed with Ulrich Beck’s theory of risk society and Randall Collin’s theory of symbolic interaction-chains and previous research.

    The result of this study indicates that the refusal of sickness benefits affects the recovery rate negatively for the participants in the study. The participants felt that the refusal extended the disease time, and they experienced reduced opportunities to recover and a worse diseases image. The result also shows a consistent picture of the experience of receiving a refusal of sickness benefits from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency. The participants do not feel that the case officers at the Social Security Fund believe them and thus they feel offended.

  • Lundmark, Pella
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Social Sciences.
    Kunskap, gemenskap och motmakt: en studie av den separatistiska gruppens betydelser för unga kvinnor med neuropsykiatriska funktionsnedsättningar2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, five young women are being interviewed about their experiences of participating in separatist groups for women and non-binary with neuropsychiatric disabilities (NPF). The purpose of this study is to contribute with knowledge of what young women with NPF can gain from participating in a separatist conversation group; thus to visualizing their experiences and raising awareness of the target group's ability to strengthen themselves. The research question is about addressing the functions of participating in a separatist group, given the target group’s life situations and their social position as women with a non-normative way of functioning. The study is based upon five semi-structured interviews, analyzed according to the thematic method of analysis. The theoretical framework is built around terms and perspectives in the fields of intersectionality and empowerment. The result shows that the informers have shared feelings of exclusion and deviation; both in relation to their gender roles and in relation to their ways of functioning, which can also be understood as powerlessness. This powerlessness, explained through intersectionality, points out that the informers, as in being women with NPF, belong to social categories that subordinate to other social categories, which also seems to have a negative impact on their lives. Against this background, the informers have searched for separatist groups, in hope to find an understanding community and to increase knowledge about their life situations. To participate in these groups can also be understood from an empowerment perspective. Partly as empowerment in the meaning of counter-power, and partly as empowerment as an emotionally strengthening process. What this study shows is therefore that participation in a separatist group can fill different strengthening functions. Through participating in a group, empowerment in the form of counter-power is made possible; thus the separatist group becomes an arena for reflection, learning and action as well as a safe and strengthening community and togetherness. Secondly, emotional empowerment is made possible by the fact that the togetherness contributes to increased commitment, to improved self-image, to increased courage and to a desire to continue to engage - in other words; to a higher level of emotional energy.

  • Adrian, Klara
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Social Sciences.
    Vägen upp: hur socionomer hanterar sin arbetssituation och når ett högre välbefinnande2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ämnet i denna studie är egna och informella strategiers betydelse i organisatoriska sammanhang. Empirin baseras på hur socionomer förhåller sig till informella strategier i syfte att bli starkare individer och mer resistenta mot stress. För yrkesutövare inom socialt arbete är stress och ohälsa ett vanligt förekommande fenomen som ofta orsakats av hög arbetsbelastning. Ohälsa på arbetet kan få negativa konsekvenser för det sociala arbetet som utförs. Brist på återhämtningsmöjligheter på arbetsplatsen är vanligt då många verksamheter ställer krav på effektivitet hos socionomer. För att finna utrymme för att hantera stress använder sig därför många av egna tillvägagångssätt för att generera inre välbehag och stabilitet. Åtta intervjuer med socionomer som arbetar på olika sociala verksamheter inom den offentliga sektorn har deltagit i studien. Det teoretiska ramverk som använts för att förtydliga och belysa empirins innehåll är gräsrotsbyråkrati och empowerment. I resultatet beskriver socionomerna varför och hur de använder sig av informella strategier till vardags för att stärka sig själva. Vidare förstås empirin utifrån ramverk som handlar om individens egna resurser och den kontext de befinner sig i. I studien framkommer det att socionomer väljer strategier utifrån att det finns ett behov av tid för återhämtning och att de förespråkar att själva välja strategier utifrån sig själva. De menar att det viktigaste är att välja strategier som är individanpassade, som genererar glädje och som bidrar till känslomässig balans. Kreativiteten sätter gränserna för hur strategierna kan användas och verktygen tycks finnas inom var och en.

  • Edfast, Fanny
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Social Sciences.
    Forsgren, Linnéa
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Social Sciences.
    "Det viktigaste är att barnen ska bli sedda": en kvalitativ studie om skolkuratorers ansvar angående barnmisshandel2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this study was to investigate school counsellors area of responsibility when it comes to child abuse by parents. To fulfil or purpose we have had an abductive approach and conducted seven qualitative semistructured interviews with school counsellors. The empirical material has thenceforth been analysed through theories about professions, and with support of theories about violence to help us analyse how we can understand child abuse. Through the analysis we identified five pairs of concepts or tensions between different approaches, which constitute the core of our results. Therefore, our results build on the following concepts: (1) Structural or individual focus; (2) Child or adult perspective; (3) Proactive or reactive approach; (4) Generalist or specialist; (5) Divided or connected understanding of child abuse.

    Through our results section we can establish that the school counsellors area of responsibility varies from school to school. This is partly because there are no clear job descriptions, which means that school counsellors themselves shape the work. This liberty of choice means that some counsellors focus their work on structural tasks on a more general and preventively level, and other on individual with more individual counselling. Furthermore, we saw a difference in if they work more proactively or reactively, that is, to what extent they actively work to discover violence towards children or if they only handle it when a child tells the adults. Regardless of their focus we can see that the respondents take their time to see and listen to the pupils, which we interpret as that them having a child perspective. The result shows that the respondents mainly aim to be generalists where they do not specialise in child abuse, and that they indicate a divided understanding about the subject. Because they regard only some types of violence as included in child abuse, they also make a difference in how they work and educate themselves within the school. Lastly, the result show that there is an absence of respondents who work both individually and proactively, which means that in practice all of the respondents place the responsibility on the pupils to speak up about the violence.

  • Hernberg, Danielle
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Social Sciences.
    ”Det pratas för lite om ungdomar överhuvudtaget när det gäller ungdomar och sexualitet”: professionella inom socialtjänsten om bemötande och arbete med unga som har sex som självskadebeteende2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to raise awareness of how professionals in social services treat and work with adolescents who have sex as self-injury behavior. The need for this study was based on the increased numbers of the adolescents who have sex as self-injury and also that social service is a key actor to notice these adolescents. Swedish social service should work for adolescents to grow up under safe conditions and pay special attention to adolescents who show signs of contrary development. In order to answer to the aim of this study the approach was qualitative in which semi structured interviewing was used. By using semi structured interviewing, the interviewees were given the opportunity to contribute to a nuanced aspect of the problem. The result was interpreted thematically and then analysed using a theoretical framework in order to better understand how professionals in social services treat and work with adolescents who have sex as self-injury behavior. The theoretical framework consisted of two theoretical concepts and frameworks: sex as a social construction and the significance of the relationship in professional work with people. The result of this essay show that professionals within social service do not actively work with adolescents with sex as self-injury, only when the problem is explicit in a specific case. The result also shows that the problem has not been addressed in social services and that the professionals rarely or never talk about it, either within the organization or with the adolescents. Besides that, the result also shows that the professionals need more knowledge about the problem and that the relationship is a prerequisite for the adolescents to tell professionals about this type of problems.

  • Hägerstrand, Beatrice
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Social Sciences.
    Thyr Ropeter, Sara
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Social Sciences.
    “Hur effektivt det här egentligen är, det får tiden utvisa”: en kvalitativ studie om kuratorers syn på internetbaserade behandlingsmetoder inom det psykosociala arbetet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study has been to increase the knowledge of how counsellors within health care view internet based treatment of patients who suffer from mental illnesses, to be able to describe and understand the possibilities and limitations with such forms of treatment. The study has been carried out through qualitative semi structured interviews with ten professional counsellors in eight different primary care units in Stockholm county. The transcripts of the interviews have been analysed by using the theory of symbolic interactionism. The result showed that the counsellors’ view of internet based treatment is ambivalent. The internet based treatment is complicated and the counsellors seeing both pros and cons indicates that there are both possibilities and limitations which such methods. The result also showed that the possibilities that the counsellors can identify in internet based treatment concerns availability and that such methods have the potential to be a valuable tool for those patient who desire such methods of treatment. When it comes to limitations the counsellors can see that treatment via internet make great demands on the patient’s own abilities and that written interaction is far less nuanced than the interactions of traditional treatment work. It is clear that the main reason for the counsellors’ hesitation about these methods is the lack of face-to-face interaction with the patient, as well as difficulties imagining the practical applications of the internet based treatment. Thus the internet based treatment work can not easily be compared with the traditional psychosocial work that occurs face-to-face, but should be considered as a potential complement to traditional treatments or even a complete new way of working.

  • Kauppi, Jannika
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Social Sciences.
    “Jag som socialarbetare blir medverkare i en process som inte någon del av mig själv står bakom”: socialarbetares erfarenheter av hur lagändringar förändrar förutsättningar och yrkesidentitet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Purpose of this studie has been to investigate how the socialworkers professional identity in relation with unaccompanied refugee children, has been effected by amendments of the law. Since several amendments of the law has been in contact with the social work I have chosen SFS 2016:750. With this amendment timelimted residence permits was initiated which limited possibilities for family reuinons with a relative background, in the midst of this the sustention demands was hardened. Eight social workers has been interviewed in a qualitative, semi-structured manner. These social workers has been involved professionally with the target group constisting of unaccompanied refugee children, both prior and after that the amendment of the law was made. The Interviews has then been the foundation of the material that has been analysed with the help of a theorecital frame of reference that is the foundation of the socialworkers professional identity and role, previously conducted research has also been accounted for. The results of the studie concludes that when the prerequesites are changed it also changes the social workers profesional situation, both internally and externally, in regards of the relation between the social worker and the refugee children. Also the private life of the respondends were effected. The result and analysis show that the Professional identity and role got separated when the professional role are changed when SFS 2016:752 was amended. The Professional identity is put to the test and the social workers own ethical compas decides how the social work itself should be performed. Amendments of the law also reflects on the social workers professional work and compensatory strategies are made. The social workers are affected on different levels of health by the consequences that appear in the sitiation, the results of the studie shows that this relates to guidance, empathy managemant and emotional control.

  • Liljevinge, Victor
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Social Sciences.
    Socialarbetaren som gick på myten om sig själv och försvann: en studie om hinder för socialsekreterare att kommentera och debattera sociala frågor i det offentliga rummet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social service workers seem to be silent in public debate. For the sake of democracy, it is important there is transparency in public administration, hence the silence is problematic. It is also problematic because of the importance that someone – for instance the player with the most competence, experi­ence and expertise in the field – functions as a voice for the vulnerable who may have difficulties mak­ing themselves and their needs heard. The aim of this thesis is to show the views of social service workers on potential obstacles for them to comment and debate social issues in public debate. To accomplish this, semi-structured interviews were conducted with six persons working with responsi­bility for public authority within the social service. From the interviews it appeared that there are things hindering the social service workers to engage in social debate. These obstacles seem to be based on a clash between the authority culture and the ideal of the social worker role. The social worker has from his or her education gained certain professional knowledge but has to, when entering the social service, relate to that knowledge being valued less than the ability to subserve the organiza­tion’s way of working and to administer government dictat. From a neo-institutionalism perspective, one explanation for the silence of the social workers is that it is not in the organization’s interest that they should speak publicly. That risks hurting the legitimacy which is a threat to the organization’s very existence. Therefor a non-supporting culture grows where fear and anxiety flourish, and no intel­ligibility is created about if it is a part of the social service worker’s role to encourage social change also on a structural level. In a ritual socialization process the social service workers internalize the organization’s beliefs. These things contribute to social service workers not commenting on or debat­ing social issues in public debate.

  • Rosén, Ulf
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Att samtala med närstående inom specialiserad palliativ hemsjukvård: sjuksköterskans erfarenheter2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Palliative care is intended to cater for the needs of patients with life threatening, non-curable, diseases at all levels of medical care in Sweden. Studies have shown that family and loved ones of patients receiving specialized palliative care in the home have not always been taken seriously or otherwise considered appropriately. This has led to them struggling under the pressure, often without acknowledgment. Not receiving the appropriate support has been shown to be a factor causing physical, psychological as well as psychosocial distresses. For example, depression, difficulties to concentrate and fatigue have been reported. Central to the work as a nurse in specialized palliative home care is to provide support to family and loved ones as it is often a necessity enabling the patient to be at home towards the end of life. The support in this case consisted largely of dialogue. By acknowledging and considering the thoughts and worries of the family, their wellbeing was increased.

    Aim: Describing the experiences of nurses supporting family and loved ones through dialogue within specialized palliative home care.

    Method: The study was by design inductive and data were collected via qualitative research interviews.

    Results: Following the analysis, the answer to the two questions emerged: How did nurses do to establish a good relationship with family and loved ones? How could nurses support family and loved ones? There were four subcategories for each question. The result showed that the conversation in specialized palliative home care was a major part of the existing work, but it did not always happen in structured and conscious forms. The experience of structured conversations with relatives was exclusively positive.

    Discussion: The result was discussed against selected parts of Watson's ten carative factors. Sensitivity to self and others, Human care relationship, To express positive and negative feelings, Creative, problem-solving care process.

  • Forinder, Katarina
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Social Sciences.
    Wannbäck, Karin
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Social Sciences.
    Ett uppskattat samtal: föräldrars erfarenhet av enskilda samtal med en kurator på en familjecentral2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the fall of 2016, a survey was implemented at a family center with the purpose to evaluate what the parents who visited the family center experienced as positive and negative aspects during individual counseling with a social worker at the family center. The survey showed a positive result, which led to that the social workers at the family center wanted to increase the knowledge about which aspects the parent found positive. They were also keen on to investigate more closely if the parents experienced some negative aspects during the counseling. On behalf of the social workers at the family center, this study has been designed to increase knowledge about parents' experiences of individual counseling with a social worker, focusing on what parents perceive as resources and obstacles in the counseling. The material of the study has been gathered using qualitative methods to capture parents' perceptions of individual counseling and to gain a deeper understanding of these views.

    The material consists of eight semistructured interviews with parents who have participated in individual counseling with a social worker at the current family center. The collected material has been analyzed using four theoretical starting points which are Bernler and Johnssons' theory of psychosocial work, alliance, empathy and active listening. The final result shows that what parents primarily perceive as resources in the individual counselings is the relationship with the social worker, getting hands on advice, the access to the social workers and the family center, as well as the enjoyable premises. The result that highlights obstacles in the individual counseling concerns the parents' desire to talk to the social worker at the family center about more than just their child and parenthood, to be offered a follow-up after the contact has been completed and that the professionals shared premises with the open preschool can be problematic.

    The conclusions of the study include the fact that the parents appreciate the family center and that the family center is a good arena for social services to work preventively on. Another conclusion is that parents find that a combination of both support and concrete advice from the counselors as well as the possibility to formulate their own needs is an appreciated balance in the individual counseling. There are also indications that the family center may need to expand its support since parents describe that they wanted to talk about other subjects other than parenting.

  • Molinder Halhoule, Sara Souad
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Rönnmo, Marilu
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Effekter av musik och musikterapi vid beteendemässiga och psykiska symtom vid demenssjukdom: litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden, the number of people with dementia will increase and nearly 25,000 people are dying each year because of the disease. In connection with dementia, behavioural and mental symptoms (BPSD) may occur. Music is considered to have positive effects that can help relieve anxiety and can be offered in conjunction with various treatments in healthcare.

    Aim: The aim was to illustrate the effects of music and music therapy in patients with behavioural and mental symptoms in dementia.

    Method: The study is a literature review based on ten scientific articles, nine of quantitative design and one qualitative. These were found through searches in two different databases, PubMed and PsycINFO and is limited to publications between 2011-2018.

    Results: The result was summarized in two themes: effects of music and music therapy in group at BPSD and effects of individual music and music therapy at BPSD. The results showed that individual or group music and music therapy reduces BPSD for example, in anxiety and agitation. Well-being improved in people with dementia as well as communication and relationship between the patient and carers.

    Discussion: The overall outcome of the literature review suggests that music and music therapy is a method that can reduce behavioural disturbances and show positive effects under BPSD. This work method is needed to pay attention to the careers who are currently working with these patients. The result of the study is discussed by the authors based on Jeans Watson's two chosen charitable factors in the outcome discussion. Watson emphasizes the importance of satisfying the individual's physical, psychosocial, psychological and spiritual needs from a holistic view.

  • Hewelt Michalik, Aleksandra
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Neilande, Marika
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Faktorer som påverkar sjukssköterskors ledarskap i omvårdnadsarbete inom äldrevården i Sverige: en litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The elderly population is getting older in Sweden and high requirements will affect the health care. Situation within the care of elderly is alarming due to lack of educated staff, especially nurses. This often results in insufficient care and could be a risk for the patients’ safety. Nurses as expert in nursing have an important role in the care and thus carry responsibility for the elderlies nursing is of high quality. Aim was to illuminate factors regarding nurses' leadership in nursing that may influence the quality of nursing in the care of elderly in Sweden. A literature review of data collection from two databases that resulted in eleven articles, six qualitative and five quantitative. There are several factors that influence the nurses' leadership in nursing care, which in turn affects nursing quality in the elderly care. The results consist of three main themes: Organizational structure and care culture, Knowledge and expertise, Relationships and cooperation. There are several factors that influence the nurses' leadership in nursing care, which in turn affects nursing quality in the elderly care. The results consist of three main themes: Organizational structure and care culture, Knowledge and expertise, Relationships and cooperation. In method discussion, the authors discussed the strengths and weaknesses of the work as well as the process of cooperation throughout the work. In the result discussion, the authors reasoned factors that proved to affect nurses' leadership in nursing as well as the most important aspects of careers, based on Katie Eriksson's nursing theory.