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O'Sullivan, A., Alvariza, A., Öhlén, J. & Larsdotter ex. Håkanson, C. (2021). The influence of care place and diagnosis on care communication at the end of life: bereaved family members' perspective. Palliative & Supportive Care, 19(6), 664-671
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of care place and diagnosis on care communication at the end of life: bereaved family members' perspective
2021 (English)In: Palliative & Supportive Care, ISSN 1478-9515, E-ISSN 1478-9523, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 664-671Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of care place and diagnosis on care communication during the last 3 months of life for people with advanced illness, from the bereaved family members' perspective.

METHOD: A retrospective survey design using the VOICES(SF) questionnaire with a sample of 485 bereaved family members (aged: 20-90 years old, 70% women) of people who died in hospital was employed to meet the study aim.

RESULTS: Of the deceased people, 79.2% had at some point received care at home, provided by general practitioners (GPs) (52%), district nurses (36.7%), or specialized palliative home care (17.9%), 27.4% were cared for in a nursing home and 15.7% in a specialized palliative care unit. The likelihood of bereaved family members reporting that the deceased person was treated with dignity and respect by the staff was lowest in nursing homes (OR: 0.21) and for GPs (OR: 0.37). A cancer diagnosis (OR: 2.36) or if cared for at home (OR: 2.17) increased the likelihood of bereaved family members reporting that the deceased person had been involved in decision making regarding care and less likely if cared for in a specialized palliative care unit (OR: 0.41). The likelihood of reports of unwanted decisions about the care was higher if cared for in a nursing home (OR: 1.85) or if the deceased person had a higher education (OR: 2.40).

SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: This study confirms previous research about potential inequalities in care at the end of life. The place of care and diagnosis influenced the bereaved family members' reports on whether the deceased person was treated with respect and dignity and how involved the deceased person was in decision making regarding care.

Keywords
Communication, Diagnosis, End of life, Family members, Place of care
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:esh:diva-8727 (URN)10.1017/S147895152100016X (DOI)000737142900005 ()33781369 (PubMedID)
Note

Forskningsfinansiärer:

- Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola

- Sven och Dagmar Saléns stiftelser

- Stiftelsen Ulrica Cronés fond

Available from: 2021-04-06 Created: 2021-04-06 Last updated: 2022-01-13Bibliographically approved
Saarnio, L., Boström, A.-M., Hedman, R., Gustavsson, P. & Öhlén, J. (2019). Enabling At-Homeness for Older People With Life-Limiting Conditions: A Participant Observation Study From Nursing Homes.. Global Qualitative Nursing Research, 6, 1-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enabling At-Homeness for Older People With Life-Limiting Conditions: A Participant Observation Study From Nursing Homes.
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2019 (English)In: Global Qualitative Nursing Research, E-ISSN 2333-3936, Vol. 6, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

At-homeness, as an aspect of well-being, can be experienced despite living with life-limiting conditions and needs for a palliative approach to care. In nursing homes, older residents with life-limiting conditions face losses and changes which could influence their experience of at-homeness. The aim of this study was to explore how nursing staff enable at-homeness for residents with life-limiting conditions. Interpretive description was employed as the design using data from participant observations and formal and informal interviews related to nursing care situations. The strategies found to be used to enable at-homeness comprising nursing staff presenting themselves as reliable, respecting the resident's integrity, being responsive to the resident's needs, collaborating with the resident in decision-making, and through nurturing comforting relationships. The result on how to enable at-homeness could be used as strategies for a person-centered palliative approach in the care for residents in nursing homes.

Keywords
At-homeness, Care relationships, Nursing home, Nursing staff, Older people, Palliative care, Participant observation, Person-centeredness
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:esh:diva-8331 (URN)10.1177/2333393619881636 (DOI)31673571 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-09-17 Created: 2020-09-17 Last updated: 2022-09-02Bibliographically approved
Ventura, F., Sawatzky, R., Öhlén, J., Karlsson, P. & Koinberg, I. (2017). Challenges of evaluating a computer-based educational programme for women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer: A randomised controlled trial. European Journal of Cancer Care, 26(5)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenges of evaluating a computer-based educational programme for women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer: A randomised controlled trial
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2017 (English)In: European Journal of Cancer Care, ISSN 0961-5423, E-ISSN 1365-2354, Vol. 26, no 5Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In a two-group, multi-centre, randomised controlled 9 months trial, we (1) evaluated the impact of a computer-based educational programme compared to standard care and (2) examined whether different patterns of programme usage could be explained by demographic, medical and psychosocial factors. We involved 226 Swedish-speaking women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer and scheduled for surgery. Primary outcomes were health self-efficacy and health care participation measured by the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Supportive System instrument. Secondary outcomes were anxiety and depression levels measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast and Sense of Coherence scales measured psychosocial factors for the study's secondary aim. Multi-level modelling revealed no statistically significant impact of the computer-based educational programme over time on the outcomes. Subsequent exploratory regression analysis revealed that older women with axillary dissection and increased physical well-being were more likely to use the programme. Furthermore, receiving post-operative chemotherapy and increased meaningfulness decreased the likelihood of use. Providing reliable and evidence-based medical and rehabilitation information via a computer-based programme might not be enough to influence multi-dimensional outcomes in women diagnosed with breast cancer. The use of these programmes should be further explored to promote adherence to e-Health supportive interventions.

Keywords
Breast cancer, Clinical trial, e-Health, Health-related knowledge, Patient education, Predictors of usage
National Category
Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:esh:diva-5446 (URN)10.1111/ecc.12534 (DOI)27339805 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2023-11-17Bibliographically approved
Mazaheri, M., Ericson-Lidman, E., Zargham-Boroujeni, A., Öhlén, J. & Norberg, A. (2017). Clear conscience grounded in relations: Expressions of Persian-speaking nurses in Sweden. Nursing Ethics, 24(3), 349-361
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Clear conscience grounded in relations: Expressions of Persian-speaking nurses in Sweden
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2017 (English)In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 349-361Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Conscience is an important concept in ethics, having various meanings in different cultures. Because a growing number of healthcare professionals are of immigrant background, particularly within the care of older people, demanding multiple ethical positions, it is important to explore the meaning of conscience among care providers within different cultural contexts.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to illuminate the meaning of conscience by enrolled nurses with an Iranian background working in residential care for Persian-speaking people with dementia.

RESEARCH DESIGN: A phenomenological hermeneutical method guided the study. Participants and research context: A total of 10 enrolled nurses with Iranian background, aged 33-46 years, participated in the study. All worked full time in residential care settings for Persian-speaking people with dementia in a large city, in Sweden. Ethical considerations: The study was approved by the Regional Ethical Review Board for ethical vetting of research involving humans. Participants were given verbal and written study information and assured that their participation was voluntary and confidential.

FINDINGS: Three themes were constructed including perception of conscience, clear conscience grounded in relations and striving to keep a clear conscience. The conscience was perceived as an inner guide grounded in feelings, which is dynamic and subject to changes throughout life. Having a clear conscience meant being able to form a bond with others, to respect them and to get their confirmation that one does well. To have a clear conscience demanded listening to the voice of the conscience. The enrolled nurses strived to keep their conscience clear by being generous in helping others, accomplishing daily tasks well and behaving nicely in the hope of being treated the same way one day.

CONCLUSION: Cultural frameworks and the context of practice needed to be considered in interpreting the meaning of conscience and clear conscience.

Keywords
Care provider, Persian-speaking residential care, Conscience, Dementia, Immigrant
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:esh:diva-6648 (URN)10.1177/0969733015603442 (DOI)26385903 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-02-15 Created: 2018-02-15 Last updated: 2023-11-17Bibliographically approved
Håkanson, C., Öhlén, J., Morin, L. & Cohen, J. (2015). A population-level study of place of death and associated factors in Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 43(7), 744-751
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A population-level study of place of death and associated factors in Sweden
2015 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 43, no 7, p. 744-751Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims: The aims of this study were to examine, on a population level, where people die in Sweden, and to investigate associations between place of death and underlying cause of death, socioeconomic and environmental characteristics, with a particular interest in people dying from life-limiting conditions typically in need of palliative care. Methods: This population-level study is based on death certificate data for all deceased individuals in Sweden in 2012, with a registered place of death (n=83,712). Multivariable logistic regression was performed to investigate associations between place of death and individual, socioeconomic and environmental characteristics. Results: The results show that, in 2012, 42.1% of all deaths occurred in hospitals, 17.8% occurred at home and 38.1% in nursing home facilities. Individuals dying of conditions indicative of potential palliative care needs were less likely to die in hospital than those dying of other conditions (OR = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.70–0.77). Living at home in urban areas was associated with higher likelihood of dying in hospital or in a nursing home (OR = 1.04 and 1.09 respectively). Educational attainment and marital status were found to be somewhat associated with the place of death. Conclusions: The majority of deaths in Sweden occur in institutional settings, with comparatively larger proportions of nursing home deaths than most countries. Associations between place of death and other variables point to inequalities in availability and/or utilization of health services at the end of life.

Keywords
Death certificates, Sweden, Health care disparities, Palliative care, Place of death, Policy, Population, Public health, Socioeconomic factors
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:esh:diva-4900 (URN)10.1177/1403494815595774 (DOI)26194351 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-11-05 Created: 2015-11-05 Last updated: 2021-04-06Bibliographically approved
Friberg, F., Lidén, E., Håkanson, C. & Öhlén, J. (2015). Communicating bodily changes: Physicians' ways of enabling patient understanding in gastrointestinal cancer consultations. Palliative & Supportive Care, 13(03), 661-671
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Communicating bodily changes: Physicians' ways of enabling patient understanding in gastrointestinal cancer consultations
2015 (English)In: Palliative & Supportive Care, ISSN 1478-9515, E-ISSN 1478-9523, Vol. 13, no 03, p. 661-671Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: To explore how physicians communicatively enable patients' understanding of bodily changes in gastrointestinal cancer care consultations.

Method: Two datasets were used. The first consisted of transcribed video-recorded palliative care consultations with three oncologists and six patients diagnosed with advanced gastrointestinal cancer, in the context of outpatient palliative care. The second dataset was audio-recorded transcriptions from diagnostic consultations with six surgeons and seven patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer, in the context of cancer surgery. An inductively driven and iterative analysis of interaction was performed, guided by Wetherell et al. (2001).

Results: Two overarching communicative strategies were identified: (1) “visualizing strategies,” with the dimensions: visible strategies (visualizing with what you actually or potentially can see), sensory strategies (visualizing with what is possible to feel), and imaginative strategies; and (2) “contrasting strategies,” with the dimensions: contrasting subjective experiences and contrasting between the patient and other people.

Significance of results: The visualizing and contrasting communicative strategies form parts of physicians' tacit and experience-based knowledge. The strategies employed by physicians reveal clear potentials to enable patients' understanding and sense making of bodily changes. However, these strategies need to be explicated and problematized as parts of both consultation practice and basic medical education. By means of increased awareness, physicians can more easily identify turning points in patients' levels of understanding, thereby enriching ordinary medical consultations with reflected pedagogical strategies and skills in how to dialogue in a person-centered manner.

Keywords
Bodily changes, Cancer, Communication, Medical consultations, Pedagogical strategies
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:esh:diva-3765 (URN)10.1017/S1478951514000352 (DOI)24784141 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-05-19 Created: 2014-05-19 Last updated: 2024-01-22Bibliographically approved
Holm, M., Carlander (Goliath), I., Fürst, C.-J., Wengström, Y., Årestedt, K., Öhlen, J. & Henriksson (Alvariza), A. (2015). Delivering and participating in a psycho-educational intervention for family caregivers during palliative home care: A qualitative study from the perspectives of health professionals and family caregivers. BMC Palliative Care, 14(16)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Delivering and participating in a psycho-educational intervention for family caregivers during palliative home care: A qualitative study from the perspectives of health professionals and family caregivers
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2015 (English)In: BMC Palliative Care, E-ISSN 1472-684X, Vol. 14, no 16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Family caregivers in palliative care have a need for knowledge and practical support from health professionals, resulting in the need for educational and supportive interventions. However, research has mainly focused on the experiences of family caregivers taking part in interventions. To gain an increased understanding of complex interventions, it is necessary to integrate the perspectives of health professionals and family caregivers. Hence, the aim of this study is to explore the perspectives of health professionals and family caregivers of delivering and participating in a psycho-educational intervention in specialized palliative home care.

Methods: A psycho-educational intervention was designed for family caregivers based on a theoretical framework describing family caregiver’s educational, emotional and practical involvement as knowing, being and doing. The intervention was delivered over three sessions, each of which included a presentation to family caregivers by healthcare professionals from an intervention manual based on the theoretical framework. For the qualitative data collection, an interpretive descriptive design was chosen. Data were collected through focus group discussions with health professionals and individual interviews with family caregivers. Data were analysed using framework analysis.

Results: From the perspectives of both health professionals and family caregivers, the delivering and participating in the intervention was described as a positive experience. Although the content was not always adjusted to the family caregivers’ individual situation, it was perceived as valuable. Consistently, the intervention was regarded as something that could make family caregivers better prepared for caregiving. Health professionals found that the work with the intervention demanded time and engagement from them and that the manual needed to be adjusted to suit group characteristics, but the experience of delivering the intervention was still something that gave them satisfaction and contributed to them finding insights into their work.

Conclusions: The theoretical framework of knowing, being and doing used in this study seems appropriate to use for the design of interventions to support family caregivers. In the perspectives of health professionals and family caregivers, the psycho-educational intervention had important benefits and there was congruence between the two groups in that it provided reward and support. In order for health professionals to carry out psycho-educational interventions, they may be in need of support and supervision as well as securing appropriate time and resources in their everyday work.

Keywords
Family caregivers, Health professionals, Home care, Psycho-educational intervention, Palliative care, Support
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:esh:diva-4600 (URN)10.1186/s12904-015-0015-1 (DOI)25903781 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-05-11 Created: 2015-05-11 Last updated: 2024-01-22Bibliographically approved
Fridh, I., Kenne Sarenmalm, E., Falk, K., Henoch, I., Öhlen, J., Ozanne, A. & Jakobsson Ung, E. (2015). Extensive human suffering: a point prevalence survey of patients' most distressing concerns during inpatient care. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 29, 444-453
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extensive human suffering: a point prevalence survey of patients' most distressing concerns during inpatient care
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2015 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 29, p. 444-453Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

AIM: To explore patients' most distressing concerns during a hospital stay.

BACKGROUND: The characteristics of hospitalised patients have changed. Care is provided at a higher age, lengths of stay have fallen and the nursing workload is increasing. It is presumed that hospitalised patients are more seriously ill and have more palliative needs than previously. Studies show that inpatients suffer from more distress than similar outpatients although there is a lack of overall knowledge about inpatients' distress and major concerns, regardless of age, diagnosis or care setting.

METHODS: This study was part of a point prevalence survey (PPS) concerning symptom prevalence. Of the 710 patients who participated in the PPS, 678 (95%) answered an open-ended question in a questionnaire: What is your main concern or what is most distressing or troublesome for you at present? Using a life-world approach, the text was analysed qualitatively and patients' concerns were interpreted in two main dimensions, an intersubjective dimension and a temporal dimension.

FINDINGS: The patients reported extensive suffering due to illness, symptoms and failing health. Patients were concerned about family members, existential issues and the future. Three aspects of the patients' most distressing concerns were interpreted: The suffering self, The suffering person in close relations and The suffering person in a threatening world.

CONCLUSION: Hospitalised patients are affected by severe illness, distressing symptoms and existential quandaries, revealing extensive human suffering in the midst of the demanding activities that take place during an ordinary day in a hospital. To support patients and alleviate suffering, hospital staff need to be more sensitive to patients' most distressing concerns. This presupposes a hospital environment in which the value system supports caring and comforting behaviour.

Keywords
Acute care, Distressing concerns, Hospitalisation, Inpatients, Life-world research, Point-prevalence survey, Qualitative research
National Category
Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:esh:diva-4240 (URN)10.1111/scs.12148 (DOI)24861486 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-12-23 Created: 2014-12-23 Last updated: 2024-01-22Bibliographically approved
Håkanson, C. & Öhlen, J. (2015). Meanings and experiential outcomes of bodily care in a specialist palliative context. Palliative & Supportive Care, 13(3), 625-633
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Meanings and experiential outcomes of bodily care in a specialist palliative context
2015 (English)In: Palliative & Supportive Care, ISSN 1478-9515, E-ISSN 1478-9523, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 625-633Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: The objective of this study was to enhance the depth of existing knowledge about meanings and experiential outcomes of bodily care in the context of an inpatient specialist palliative setting.

Method: Interpretative phenomenology was chosen as the study sought to explore individuals' lived experiences related to bodily care. Nine participants (five women, four men) of various ages and with various metastasized cancers and bodily-care needs, all from one specialist palliative care ward, participated. Data were collected with repeated narrative interviews and supplementary participating observations. Analysis was informed by van Manen's approach.

Results: The following meanings and experiential outcomes of bodily care were revealed by our study: maintaining and losing body capability, breaching borders of bodily integrity, being comforted and relieved in bodily-care situations, and being left in distress with unmet needs. These meanings overlap and shape the nature of each other and involve comforting and distressing experiences related to what can be described as conditional dimensions: the particular situation, one's own experiences of the body, and healthcare professionals' approaches.

Significance of results: The results, based on specialist palliative care patients' experiences, outline the meanings and outcomes that relate to the quintessence and complexity of palliative care, deriving from dying persons' blend of both basic and symptom-oriented bodily-care needs. Moreover, the results outline how these two dimensions of care equally influence whether comfort and well-being are facilitated or not. Considering this, specialist palliative care may consider how to best integrate and acknowledge the value of skilled basic nursing care as part of and complementary to expertise in symptom relief during the trajectories of illness and dying.

Keywords
Bodily care, Body decline, Interpretive phenomenology, Nursing care, Palliative care
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:esh:diva-4145 (URN)10.1017/S147895151400025X (DOI)24762673 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding: Erling Persson Foundation, Sven and Dagmar Sahlén Foundation, OE and Edla Johansson Scientific Foundation, Olle Engkvist Foundation

Available from: 2014-10-23 Created: 2014-10-23 Last updated: 2021-04-06Bibliographically approved
Håkanson, C., Sandberg, J., Ekstedt, M., Kenne Sarenmalm, E., Christiansen, M. & Öhlen, J. (2015). Providing Palliative Care in a Swedish Support Home for People Who Are Homeless. Qualitative Health Research
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Providing Palliative Care in a Swedish Support Home for People Who Are Homeless
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2015 (English)In: Qualitative Health Research, ISSN 1049-7323, E-ISSN 1552-7557Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite high frequencies of multiple, life-limiting conditions relating to palliative care needs, people who are homeless are one of the most underserved and rarely encountered groups in palliative care settings. Instead, they often die in care places where palliative competence is not available. In this qualitative single-case study, we explored the conditions and practices of palliative care from the perspective of staff at a Swedish support home for homeless people. Interpretive description guided the research process, and data were generated from repeated reflective conversations with staff in groups, individually, and in pairs. The findings disclose a person-centered approach to palliative care, grounded in the understanding of the person’s health/illness and health literacy, and how this is related to and determinant on life as a homeless individual. Four patterns shape this approach: building trustful and family-like relationships, re-dignifying the person, re-considering communication about illness and dying, and re-defining flexible and pragmatic care solutions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2015
Keywords
Death and dying, Homelessness, Interpretive description, Knowledge construction, Palliative care, Qualitative, Sweden
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:esh:diva-4901 (URN)10.1177/1049732315588500 (DOI)25994318 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-11-05 Created: 2015-11-05 Last updated: 2024-02-20Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2429-8705

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