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PS - A school-wide prevention programme: Effects, core components and implementation
Karolinska institutet.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4007-5456
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

PS is multi-component intervention at the primary prevention level and aims at creating a positive learning environment and decreasing problem behaviours among students in the school years 4-9. During 2009-2012 the programme was both implemented and studied for the first time in a Swedish context. The present thesis comprises four studies of PS and applies a mixed methods approach. The thesis aims to study: 1) If the programme is effective in enhancing the classroom climate, and decreasing problem behaviours among students (Study I), 2) teachers and school staff’s perceptions of programme and implementation (study II and III) and 3) if teacher’s use of praise and clarity of school rules, regardless of programme use, are useful as classroom management techniques, and if there are any differences between classes in terms of disruption (study IV). A quasi-randomized trial was conducted in study I, comprising 3207 students in school grades 5-7 and 188 teachers in 23 schools in the wider area of Stockholm. The participating children and their head teachers answered self-report questionnaires on three occasions: At baseline and one and two years after programme initiation. Degree of implementation in the schools was also measured. Further, a qualitative design with semi-structured interviews and thematic content analysis was used in study II and III. The interviews were conducted in seven PS schools with seven school leaders and 13 school teachers during 2010 and 2011. In study IV, students (n=2266) and classes were divided into two groups, based on teacher ratings of disruptive students in class. Baseline and 12-month follow-up responses were used to perform multiple regression analysis, to compare groups and to investigate possible longitudinal associations. Study I showed no significant effects on students’ problem behaviours and classroom climate at last follow-up. The findings from study II indicated barriers to programme commitment in terms of lack of consensus, collaboration barriers and insufficient process management. It was concluded that leadership, coaching and staff selection need particular attention when implementing a programme like PS, since those factors have been defined as important implementation drivers, both in this study and previously. Study III showed that teachers’ professional identity, programme understanding and experience of change were factors affecting implementation. Ambiguities regarding the boundaries of the social assignment, opposition against the theoretical underpinnings and an unclear core component were identified as implementation barriers. In study IV it was shown that clarity of school rules did not substantially contribute to classroom climate, whereas teacher’s use of praise to some extent did. The hypothesis on weaker associations in the low disruption group could not be confirmed. This thesis cannot provide an answer to the question whether PS is effective or not, since findings indicate that the implementation did not succeed. However, findings in the last study indicate that teacher’s use of praise may contribute to improve the classroom climate. If the PS programme is to be used again there is a need for revisions, and sufficient time for schools to consider programme adoption will be crucial. Aspects of programme implementation are further discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Karolinska institutet , 2018. , p. 70
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:esh:diva-6779Libris ID: 22432260ISBN: 978-91-7676-248-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:esh-6779DiVA, id: diva2:1205403
Public defence
2018-03-02, Inghesalen, Widerströmska Huset, Tomtebodavägen 18A, Solna, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-05-14 Created: 2018-05-14 Last updated: 2018-07-09Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A Quasi-Randomized Trial of a School-Wide Universal Prevention Program: Results and Lessons Learned
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Quasi-Randomized Trial of a School-Wide Universal Prevention Program: Results and Lessons Learned
2016 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 60, no 4, p. 449-476Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Prevention in School (PS) is a comprehensive program which aims to improve the learning climate and reduce problem behavior in elementary schools. Core components are teaching of school rules, praise and rewards to support prosocial behavior, and a forum involving parents. This trial investigated the effects of PS on its intended outcomes, and includes 23 schools, 3,207 students, and 188 teachers. Multilevel regression analyses indicated no program effects two years after the start of the program. Problems with program components, implementation and study limitations may have contributed to the null findings. The lessons learned may be used to guide program revisions, and are important to consider in future attempts to implement and evaluate similar school interventions in a Swedish context.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2016
Keywords
Quasi-randomized, School-based prevention, Program implementation, Problem behavior
National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:esh:diva-6778 (URN)10.1080/00313831.2015.1024164 (DOI)000382933200005 ()
Available from: 2018-05-14 Created: 2018-05-14 Last updated: 2018-05-14Bibliographically approved
2. Implementation of a school-wide prevention programme-teachers' and headmasters' perceptions of organizational capacity.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implementation of a school-wide prevention programme-teachers' and headmasters' perceptions of organizational capacity.
2014 (English)In: Evaluation and Program Planning, ISSN 0149-7189, E-ISSN 1873-7870, Vol. 43, p. 48-54, article id S0149-7189(13)00088-8Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study focuses on schools' organizational capacity to implement a Swedish school-wide programme, Prevention in School (PS). It is based on semi-structured interviews with seven headmasters and 13 teachers from seven Swedish schools. The interviews were analyzed by the use of qualitative content analysis. The findings show that the adoption of a comprehensive intervention like PS challenges the school organization as the staff encountered a variety of organizational barriers when implementing the programme. Factors connected to lack of consensus, collaboration and insufficient programme management were the main barriers that were identified. Teachers wanted a more extensive support from their headmasters in terms of participation in different programme activities. It was emphasized that peer coaches need to be prepared for their task, although the headmasters found it difficult to be able to choose those teachers who they perceived as the most suitable. It is concluded that leadership, coaching and staff selection need particular attention when implementing a programme like PS, since those factors have been defined as important implementation drivers, both in this study and previously.

Keywords
Headmasters, Implementation, Organizational capacity, Prevention programme, School-wide programme, Teachers
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:esh:diva-6776 (URN)10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2013.10.005 (DOI)24321372 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-05-14 Created: 2018-05-14 Last updated: 2018-05-14Bibliographically approved
3. The implementation of a behavioural support programme Teachers' perceptions of the programme and themselves as providers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The implementation of a behavioural support programme Teachers' perceptions of the programme and themselves as providers
2016 (English)In: Health Education, ISSN 0965-4283, E-ISSN 1758-714X, Vol. 116, no 6, p. 526-540Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate how teachers received and perceived the school programme Prevention in School (PS), a positive behavioural support programme; how did the teachers perceive the programme characteristics and themselves as providers; and how did this affect programme implementation? Design/methodology/approach - Qualitative methods with semi-structured interviews with 13 teachers and thematic content analysis were used. Findings - The teachers were heterogeneous in their views, with professional identity, programme understanding and experiencing change being important factors for the implementation. Ambiguities regarding the boundaries of the social assignment, opposition against the theoretical underpinnings and an unclear nomenclature in a core component affected the implementation negatively. Among the perceived benefits were instant rewards in the form of aha moments and increased self-awareness. The nature of the implementation barriers indicates that PS is in need of further development. Practical implications - Compatibility with teachers' ideologies, clarification of the social assignment and enough time to consider programme adoption are vital when implementing a programme like PS. Originality/value - The study provides context-specific understanding of teachers' perceptions of a behavioural support programme and of their role when trying to implement it. It is known that providers' perceptions affect the implementation and this study contributes to the field of implementation research, with particular respect to the school setting and comprehensive programmes like PS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EMERALD GROUP PUBLISHING LTD, 2016
Keywords
Teachers, Prevention, Primary schools, Implementation, Intervention
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:esh:diva-6777 (URN)10.1108/HE-07-2015-0021 (DOI)000386027600001 ()
Available from: 2018-05-14 Created: 2018-05-14 Last updated: 2018-05-14Bibliographically approved
4. Teacher’s use of praise, clarity of school rules and classroom climate: Comparing classroom compositions in terms of disruptive students
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Teacher’s use of praise, clarity of school rules and classroom climate: Comparing classroom compositions in terms of disruptive students
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:esh:diva-6780 (URN)
Available from: 2018-05-14 Created: 2018-05-14 Last updated: 2018-05-15Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf