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  • 1.
    Aafjes-van Doorn, Katie
    et al.
    Adelphi University, USA.
    Lilliengren, Peter
    Stockholm University.
    Cooper, Angela
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Macdonald, James
    Headington Psychotherapy, England.
    Falkenström, Fredrik
    Uppsala University.
    Patients Affective Processes Within Initial Experiential Dynamic Therapy Sessions2017In: Psychotherapy, ISSN 0033-3204, E-ISSN 1939-1536, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 175-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has indicated that patients in-session experience of previously avoided affects may be important for effective psychotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate patients in-session levels of affect experiencing in relation to their corresponding levels of insight, motivation, and inhibitory affects in initial Experiential Dynamic Therapy (EDT) sessions. Four hundred sixty-six 10-min video segments from 31 initial sessions were rated using the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale. A series of multilevel growth models, controlling for between-therapist variability, were estimated to predict patients adaptive affect experiencing (Activating Affects) across session segments. In line with our expectations, higher within-person levels of Insight and Motivation related to higher levels of Activating Affects per segment. Contrary to expectations, however, lower levels of Inhibition were not associated with higher levels of Activating Affects. Further, using a time-lagged model, we did not find that the levels of Insight, Motivation, or Inhibition during one session segment predicted Activating Affects in the next, possibly indicating that 10-min segments may be suboptimal for testing temporal relationships in affective processes. Our results suggest that, to intensify patients immediate affect experiencing in initial EDT sessions, therapists should focus on increasing insight into defensive patterns and, in particular, motivation to give them up. Future research should examine the impact of specific inhibitory affects more closely, as well as between-therapist variability in patients in-session adaptive affect experiencing.

  • 2.
    Abarzúa Gonzalez, Roberto
    Ersta Sköndal University College, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Motivationsfaktorer för förändring av våldsbeteende: Tre män berättar om sin motivationsprocess före, under och i slutet av behandlingen2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att genom intervjuer beskriva olika betingelser som motiverar män att söka hjälp för sitt våldsutövande i nära relationer samt beskriva olika betingelser som är avgörande för om man fullföljer den planerade behandlingen eller inte. Den tredje frågeställning var om de här beskrivningarna kunde ge idéer om vilka behandlingsinslag som bidrar till att män fullföljer behandlingen som syftar till att man slutar använda våld. Tre män intervjuades tre gånger under sin behandling, det vill säga i början, i mitten och i slutet av behandlingen. Intervjuerna genomfördes under sammanlagt sex månader. Intervjuerna följde en intervjuguide och var halvstrukturerade.

    Gemensamt för alla tre män som är avgörande för att de söker hjälp och fullföljer sin behandling är när de upplevde att deras våldshandlingar fick allvarliga konsekvenser både för sig själva och för sin omgivning.

    En annan avgörande motiverande faktor för dessa män var att de upplevde att gruppledarna för behandlingsgruppen gav utrymme för allas berättelser. Männen uttrycker att de får ett utrymme för att själva reflektera över den situation som de befinner sig i utan en alltför styrande, kontrollerande attityd från gruppledarna. Detta förhållningssätt från gruppledarna verkar stärka männens motivation till att fortsätta behandlingen och därmed göra förändringen möjligt.

     Mötet med de andra deltagarna är en central motivationsfaktor för att genomföra behandlingen. Känslan att man inte är ensam, att man delar med sig av sina egna erfarenheter, att man känner igen sig, att se värre konsekvenser för andra deltagare är viktiga faktorer i förändringsarbetet.

    Motivationen verkar vara motorn eller drivkraften i själva förändringsarbetet. Denna undersökning pekar i riktning att motivationen verkligen är en dynamisk och föränderlig process som påverkas av många olika komponenter, inte minst i relation till andra människor.

  • 3.
    Abbass, Allan
    et al.
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Lilliengren, Peter
    Stockholms universitet.
    Town, Joel
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    On Paolo Migone's "What Does Brief Mean?"2014In: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, ISSN 0003-0651, E-ISSN 1941-2460, Vol. 62, no 5, p. NP18-NP22Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Abbass, Allan
    et al.
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Town, Joel
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Ogrodniczuk, John
    University of British Columbia, Canada.
    Joffres, Michel
    Simon Fraser University, Canada.
    Lilliengren, Peter
    Stockholms universitet.
    Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy Trial Therapy: Effectiveness and Role of Unlocking the Unconscious2017In: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, ISSN 0022-3018, E-ISSN 1539-736X, Vol. 205, no 6, p. 453-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the effects of trial therapy interviews using intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy with 500 mixed sample, tertiary center patients. Furthermore, we investigated whether the effect of trial therapy was larger for patients who had a major unlocking of the unconscious during the interview compared with those who did not. Outcome measures were the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP), measured at baseline and at 1-month follow-up. Significant outcome effects were observed for both the BSI and the IIP with small to moderate preeffect/posteffect sizes, Cohen's d = 0.52 and 0.23, respectively. Treatment effects were greater in patientswho had a major unlocking of the unconscious comparedwith thosewho did not. The trial therapy interview appears to be beneficial, and its effects may relate to certain therapeutic processes. Further controlled research is warranted.

  • 5.
    Alissavakis, Gricel
    Ersta Sköndal University College, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Erfarenheter av ABFT2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Mental illness and suicide in young people from 15-24 years has increased in Sweden. To examine methods which can help in the fight against mental illness feels crucial, when traditional methods not always is sufficient for the target audience and for treatment of mental illness in youths. Attachment-based family therapy, ABFT is used for young people with mental health problems such as depression, anxiety and suicidality problems. ABFT is used today in child and youth psychiatry (BUP), in social services treatment for youth and in some state institutions for youth (SIS) in Sweden.

    Research questions: The study's purpose is to investigate psychotherapists, patients and parents different experiences of ABFT treatment. Interviews were conducted with four psychotherapists, two patients and two parents. Qualitative method was used and data collected have been analysed using thematic analysis of inductive approach.

    Results: The results are tied to five themes ; Attachment , relationships, communication, affects and change. Psychotherapists view re-attachment as necessary in order to re-establish dialogue and communication between parents and youth. This improves in the long run the relationship and affiliation, but also the mental state of youth according to psychotherapists. Young people's experience is that they became better understood and heard by their parents. The dialogue resumed and feelings could be expressed to the terms. When needs and feelings were received by the parent reliance grew on parents, the relationship improved and parents could be seen as a resource. Parents experience is that they got other ways to communicate, support and face his youth on.

    Discussion : Shows that reconnection and relational reformulation of the problems are made in the ABFT. The relational problems are consequences of the previous attachment injuries. Restored dialogue allows for reconnection, which improves the relationship. Extension of the fountain of youth and parent's capacity for emotional processing is the prerequisite for change. The expression of feelings associated with related injuries seems healing for young people as well as improves relationship and connection to the parent. Change occurs when youth put into words and share feelings with parents. To be received in their emotions creates a change in the internal working models of youth and parents. Changes occurs in the interaction between parents and youth which does that the internal working models of self and others can be reconsidered.

  • 6.
    Almén, Donald
    Ersta Sköndal University College, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Subjektets möjligheter: - En undersökning i den lacanska psykoanalysen.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The essay explores the human psyche by the French psychoanalyst and psychiatrist Jacques Lacan's psychoanalytic theory. The essay examines the subject's conditions and possibilities based on Lacanian theory, and what implications it has on symptom location in clinical diagnostics. The method uses Lacanian theory and descriptions of the subject's status, the production of which is abstracted to a set of rules. The theory's validity tested in the paper on clinical case reports and other such cases. In the discussion it will be the implication of the Lacanian theory of the subject is extensive in terms of clinical diagnosis and evaluation of the symptom.

     

  • 7.
    Andersson Elmtoft, Natasja
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Att gå i psykoterapi efter pension: En kvalitativ studie av yngre äldre kvinnors behov avpsykoterapi2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Health psychology among elderly is a neglected topic and social authorities ask foralternative treatment methods to medication. Several studies conclude there is alack of research regarding psychotherapy with elderly. Due to this, the aim of thepresent study is to examine the specific issues and life-problems that concernpsychotherapy attending seniors today, and what they consider as helpful intherapy. A qualitative research design was used with interviews conducted withfive women, who had all chosen to attend psychotherapy after retirement. Thewomen were between 64 and 73 years old when the interviews took place. Theresults showed that four of the five women had gone through some kind ofpersonal crisis in connection with their retirement. The women had all soughtpsychotherapy during the life span, due to a variety of reasons and life-problems.The women in this study think that psychotherapy is helpful after retirement, butthat the psychotherapy should be adapted to the specific needs that elderly peopledo have., which is in line with earlier research.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Karin
    Ersta Sköndal University College, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    En utvärdering av psykodynamisk psykoterapi på Stadsmissionens Terapicenter för unga: Analys av självskattade symptomförändringar via SCL-902014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning: Syftet med undersökningen är att få en bild av självskattade symptomförändringar hos de unga vuxna som genomfört en psykodynamisk psykoterapi på Stadsmissionens Terapicenter för Unga, under perioden 2008-september 2013.

    Frågeställningar: Den övergripande frågeställningen var om och i vilken grad patienternas självskattade symptom förändrats under behandlingstiden. Utgångshypotesen för undersökningen var att den skulle visa en signifikant förbättrad självupplevd psykisk hälsa hos de unga vuxna som ingår i studien.

    Metod: Studien har genomförts genom att en statistisk analys gjorts av insamlat självskattningsmaterial i SCL-90, för perioden 2008 - september 2013, från Stadsmissionens Terapicenter för unga. Materialet består av enkätsvar från 209 personer.

    Resultat: Resultaten visar att det sker en positivt signifikant symptomförändring under behandlingstiden. Störst är den positiva symptomförändringen i det generella genomsnittsvärdet, GSI, samt vad gäller depression, ångest, interpersonell känslighet och tvång. Resultaten visar också att det finns ett betydande bortfall som inte är slumpmässigt, då bortfallet tenderar att överrepresenteras av personer med en högre nivå av psykiska besvär.

    Diskussion: De positiva behandlingsresultaten går tyvärr inte att generalisera på grund av ett betydande bortfall, dessutom saknades i hög utsträckning persondata i databasen vilket bidrar till en brist i resultatdiskussionen. En bredare och mer kontrollerad bortfallsinformation, såväl som ytterligare persondata, skulle vara till gagn för framtida utvärderingar.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Lars-Percy
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Psykoterapeutens känslor - risker och möjligheter i terapin2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are few references in research on the therapeutic relationship that explicitly deals with the psychotherapist's emotions in the relationship. The purpose of this study is to understand more about the psychotherapist's emotions, what triggers them in the therapy relationship and the perceived risks and opportunities with their feelings.  A qualitative methodology with an explorative approach was used for this study. Participants in the study are six psychotherapists; four women and two men, aged 50-65 years. The result shows that psychotherapists do not connect strong feelings in relation to the positive outcome in therapy. They express that as a psychotherapist one should be observant of one´s feelings and that the feelings should be kept in the background of the relationship. In the therapies that participants refer to in the interviews, the results has been good, the patients have been perceived as genuine and the psychotherapists have felt genuinely liked by the patient. Participants do not connect positive treatment outcome and authenticity of the patient in the therapy relationship. Authenticity also among the psychotherapist, both self-knowledge and professional skills are important factors for the performance of the therapeutic work. 

  • 10.
    Andiné, Maria
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Hur upplever och beskriver psykoterapeuter den terapeutiska alliansen i ISTDP?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The therapeutic alliance is considered an important factorregardless of therapeutic technique or theory. This essay discusses the affectivefocusedpsychotherapeutic method named Intensive short-term dynamicpsychotherapy (ISTDP) with focus on the therapeutic alliance. The aim of thisstudy is to examine how psychotherapists experience and describe the therapeuticalliance in ISTDP.

    Issues: How do psychotherapists experience and describe the therapeutic alliancein ISTDP?

    Method: The data collection method is qualitative semi-structured interviews.The material was analysed by using the processing method of empirical thematicanalysis.

    Results: The result of the interviews are first presented by the informants´descriptions of the therapeutic alliance in ISTDP, followed by five emergingthemes; Responsiveness, Tempo/Pace, Body language, Press and Skill.

    Discussion: The essay shows that the psychotherapist experience and describethe ISTDP method as a way to jointly with the patient create, a strong consciousand unconscious therapeutic alliance and a healing relationship. The result wassimilar in all respondents and consistent with theory and previous research.Possible future studies are suggested.

  • 11.
    Axelsson, Christer
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Bedömning av karaktärsstruktur utifrån ISTDP jämfört med patientens självskattning av psykiska besvär2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In ISTDP have psychodynamic diagnostics developed and is continuously used in the treatment. The diagnostics divides patients into different character structures. Frederickson (2013) makes a classification into these four categories low resistance, moderate resistance, high resistance and fragile. This study examines how patients assessed character structure correlates with the patient's self-assessment of their mental problems.

    Questions: Does therapist's assessment correlate, concerning the nature of the structures low resistance, moderate resistance, high resistance and fragile, with the patient's self-rated mental health problems with the evaluation form CORE-OM.

    Methods: 31 patients at three psychiatric clinics have completed the self-assessment form CORE-OM. Then they were interviewed by the psychologists to assess the character of the structure. The estimated structure was compared with the outcomes of the CORE-OM. The statistical analyzes were conducted with Spearman's rho value. Kruskal - Wallis rank test. Selected level of significance <0:05. Follow-up pairwise mail / hoc test (Man-Whitney U test with Bonferoni corrected p value).

    Results: The estimated character structure correlates with the patient's self-assessment of psychological disorders as measured by the CORE-OM. The differences are significant between character structures moderate resistance and fragile regard both the CORE-OM total and domain scores. Fragile character structure stands out significantly from the rest of the domain risk with higher degree of risk reported. Character Structure moderate resistance stands out significantly with reported lower degree of difficulty in subcategories close relationships and socially with the rest.

    Discussion: The study's results demonstrate that the assessment of the character structure based ISTDP is a reliable diagnostic method. The results support the long tradition of theory in the psychodynamic tradition of the link between the nature of the defense and the level of mental illness.

  • 12.
    Bakke, Elisabeth
    Ersta Sköndal University College, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Begreppet Acceptans som beskrivning av förändring i psykodynamisk psykoterapi2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is a debate in psychotherapy research on how change takes place. Accep-tance is described in relational theory by Safran and Muran (2000) as the heart of change in psychotherapy. It seems acceptance has not been studied as a common factor in research of psychotherapy. The question at issue is: How can the process of change in psychodynamic psychotherapy be described using the concept of acceptance? Have the patient reached an increased level of accep-tance, what kind of acceptance is it and how is it linked to change? Does accep-tance appear in such a way in the interviews that one can see it as a common factor of importance? This study has a qualitative approach, where interviews with six adults have been analyzed using a thematic approach. Five main themes emerged: a) Acceptance of more aspects of self, b) Acceptance of personal limits, c) Acceptance of responsibility and agency, d) Acceptance of difference, e) The therapist's acceptance of the patient. The result shows that not all change is or can be described in terms of acceptance but it indicates that acceptance can be seen as an important underlying mechanism that contributes to change. It also indicates that the study of acceptance as measure of outcome could contribute to studying structural change after psychotherapy but further research would be needed.

  • 13.
    Bane, Birgitta
    Ersta Sköndal University College, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Metodfokus på Affekt; Hur känns det?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence-based psychotherapeutic methods compete with each other, while meta-analysis have shown that variability due to different methods related to outcome is remarkably low. In this qualitative study six former patients were interviewed about experiences of method and technique in Affect-focused therapy, with a slight overweight towards unsatisfactory experiences. Responses were analysed and categorised in emergent themes. Methodological focus on affect showed to be a much appreciated, as well as insufficient, element. Alongside positive experiences or summaries of therapy, methodological frames were felt to be at times restrictive, even invalidating, as far as not allowing focus on what was felt to be the more predominant need. These needs were varied and individual; e.g. more/less of undetermined space free of preconceptions, more/less focus on affect, more direction forward, or more space for existentially oriented aspects. Results found good support in previous research except for a strong validation of therapists, even when aspects of therapy had been severely problematic. Experiences of applied method differed extremely among participants. The study highlighted lack of relation between method and outcome, and that positive regard of therapy and alliance were not synonymous with good outcome. Prominent themes were quality of methodological focus on affect and of therapeutic relationship, basic humanistic values, and individual factors of variance.

    Future research was suggested to focus on integration of methods, on therapists’ common factors, as well as on issues of power in the therapeutic relationship.

  • 14.
    Bergklo, Eva
    Ersta Sköndal University College, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    ”Från dom har det blivit vi” - Tre medelålders systrars relationsutveckling före och efter föräldrarnas död.: - En retrospektiv kvalitativ studie utifrån två syskongruppers upplevelser.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this retrospective qualitative study is to increase knowledge about three sisters' experience of the development of their relationships before and after both parents death. A qualitative research method was chosen. Two sibling groups of three sisters in middle age 49-62 years were interviewed. The data were analyzed with empirical thematic analysis. The result showed a structure with four different time intervals with fifteen themes. Despite the extremely strong dysfunctional nature of the relations in their origin families the sisters caught sight of each other when the parents died. The sibling relationships have been overshadowed by the parents' presence and their problems. Relationships and roles changed in the process before and after parental death between the sisters and matured into something else. This runs as a thread throughout the material; to exist in life, sibling relationships are reviewed, and it leads to intimacy, autonomy and differentiation, an acceptance that everyone is different in the triad that guides them to protect each other even more in middle age.

  • 15.
    Bergsten, Gunilla
    Ersta Sköndal University College, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Arbetet med känslor i Anknytningsbaserad familjeterapi2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Depression is one of the most common psychiatric symptoms among Swedish adolescents and young adults. Attachment Based Family Therapy ( ABFT ) focuses specifically on depression and suicidal young people. This paper will focus on the work with emotions in family therapy/ABFT.

    Question: In order to explore how psychotherapists that follow ABFT manual can work to deepen the emotional level of the family members. Is it possible to see conections between therapist’s interventions and the emotional deepening in the family?

    Method: Qualitative case study on a filmed psychotherapy, a total of 18 sessions. The family consists of a youth and his or her parents. A number of episodes have been selected where the psychotherapist's interventions and what happened in each episode have been studied with thematic analysis.

    Result: To connect familymembers to each other awokes most emotions within the family. Meetings occur that are interpreted to be healing and to have long term effects at the family members' relationships.

    Discussion: The studys result are linked to Daniel Stern's theory of "moments of meeting", intersubjectivity in the family and family therapy unique opportunity to work with emotions in the presence of the objects that it actually applies to. 

  • 16.
    Bjerger, Christine
    Ersta Sköndal University College, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Det psykoterapeutiska rummet: Psykoterapeuters tankar om betydelsen av arbetsrummets funktion och utformning2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Primarily psychodynamic trained psychotherapists relate to and use the workroom in various ways in their profession. The aim of the study was to highlight some psychotherapists thoughts about the importance of function and design in a workroom. The questions are focused on how the room’s interior design is of significance to the individual therapist and the psychotherapeutic process. Method: The study is based on a qualitative approach and five certified psychotherapists with a psychodynamic orientation were interviewed. The result shows that the interviewed psychotherapists have much knowledge on the importance of the therapeutic space and its’ design. They adapt the architecture and try to arrange the interior of the room in the best way for themselves and the patient. Making sure the patient is comfortable. The furniture and especially the armchairs are important in the process. They use textiles, art, lighting and the natural light and different views provided by windows. To be undisturbed is considered most important and they are reluctant to change rooms. The psychotherapists see themselves as part of the room they work in and the room as part of the whole. The room thus affects the psychotherapeutic process. Discussion: The individual psychotherapist uses a lot of time to figure out what works best in an office before meeting the patient and he or she requires a flexibility to meet different patient groups and different types of activities. Nevertheless, it is something that one does not talk so much about or highlight in psychotherapeutic work. It has become common to share rooms with other therapists as well as other activities, leading to a need for temporarily changing rooms. There is research on environmental health and care room influence on the healing process, but no current research on the psychotherapeutic workroom design. There may be a risk that the workroom is forgotten or is not prioritized when establishing various health care-businesses in the county and municipalities.

  • 17.
    Bladh, Ulrika
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Informationsteknologi som terapeutiskt hjälpmedel: Den terapeutiska relationen via Skype2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's information society, is offering new ways to interact, to establish relationships and maintain contact between people.Technology and therapy is a way to maintain a therapeutic relationship with the help of Skype as an information technology tools. The purpose of the study is to examine psychotherapist’s experiences of the therapeutic relationship in psychodynamic psychotherapy via videocommunication. Research questions focuses on the psychotherapists' use of psychodynamic theories, the description of the therapeutic relationship and how the therapeutic alliance is being built in videocommunications. The study was a qualitative research approach with a hermeneutic method. Six therapists who pursued therapy via Skype were interviewed. The results show that therapists felt that there was a distance in the relationship which could be used positively to investigate deeper into the therapy. The therapies became wordier as transferense and countertrancferences could not be identified as easily as in a physical meeting. The therapeutic alliance felt more fragile on Skype. Discussions from the study shows in order to pursue a psychodynamic psychotherapy on Skype the therapists needed to adapt the theory to the technology. The distance in the relationship was used as a means of therapy to be developed into insight therapy but could also seem to strengthen the defenses.

  • 18.
    Braaf, Lisa
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Att inte släppa patienten på irrvägar: Fem psykoterapeutstudenters upplevelser av att lära sig arbeta med Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 60 credits / 90 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: ISTDP, a method with a growing evidence base, requires a greater degree of activity and directness from the therapist than the classical psychodynamic approach. The purpose of this study is to gain knowledge of psychotherapy students' experience of learning ISTDP in parallel with other educational features.

    Questions: Focus on psychotherapy students' experience of learning ISTDP and integrating it with other ways to work in psychodynamic therapy.

    Results: Interviewees describe ambivalence: on one hand an appreciation of having learned the method, on the other the challenges of being active, attentive, and finding appropriate interventions. Growing experience led to greater courage and sense of security in the therapist role. The method was perceived to facilitate clarity, focus, and regulation of anxiety in patient work.

    Discussion: This study demonstrates the difficulties involved when learning a method where working ways differ from those taught in other courses. The study underlines the importance of a balance between challenge and security in the learning situation, considering the students' previous knowledge and limited. Factors that promote and impede learning are discussed.

  • 19.
    Brandstetter Madiedo, Consuelo
    Ersta Sköndal University College, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Klientens perspektiv på psykoterapi2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how people who have been in psychotherapy, regardless

    of the used method, think about what has been important in their experiences.

    It aims to increase the understanding of what is effective in psychotherapy

    based on the client’s perspective. The study has a qualitative approach, where

    interviews with five adults were analyzed using a thematic approach. Three

    main themes were identified: a) reason to seek psychotherapy, b) reason to

    accept the psychotherapy offered and c) the effects of that contact.

    The findings also point out that clients make an active choice when they accept

    the help that they have looked for. Another aspect in the findings is the obvious

    importance the role the psychotherapist plays in the therapeutic contact. The

    therapeutic method used in psychotherapy emerges as a less important aspect

    of the contact which is nevertheless still mentioned in the reports. Finally, the

    positive effect of the therapeutic contact is highlighted as an important aspect.

  • 20.
    Branner, Aron
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Hur gör vi egentligen?: Vilka interventionstyperupplever psykoterapeuter att de använderför att skapa behandlingsallians medpatienter som har svårigheter med mentalisering? –En explorativ studie.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning: Att undersöka hur psykoterapeuterarbetar kliniskt med patienter som har svårigheter med mentalisering kan ge en tydligare uppfattning om vad som är hjälpsamt i skapandet av behandlingsallians. Psykoterapiforskning har visat att olika typer av interventioner kan vara verksamma i fråga om att skapa behandlingsallians. I denna studie undersöks vilka interventionstyperfem psykoterapeuter beskriver sig använda i försök att skapa behandlingsallians med patienter som har svårigheter med mentalisering.

    Frågeställningar: Vilka interventionstyperuppleverpsykodynamiskt orienterade psykoterapeuter är till hjälp för att skapa behandlingsallians med patienter som har svårt att mentalisera?

    Metod: I undersökningen tillämpades en kvalitativ, deskriptiv metod där data samlades in med hjälp av ljudinspelade, semistrukturerade intervjuer. Bearbetningsmetoden som används är tematisk analys.

    Resultat: Studien visar terapeuters olika syn på vad som är till hjälp när det handlar omatt skapa behandlingsallians hos personer som har svårt att mentalisera. Trots skillnader i teoretiska förhållningssätt trädde fyra gemensamma teman fram. De fyra centrala temanasom trädde fram i bearbetningen av intervjuerna var affekter, transparens, samarbete samt överföring.

    Diskussion: De beskrivna interventionstypernaochhur interventioner regleras efter reflektionsförmågadiskuteras. Vilka interventiontypersom upplevsverksamma jämförs med aktuell teoribildningi ämnet. Det framkommer olika teoretiska referensramar angående hur interventionstyperna skapas. Trotsolikateoretiska referensergår det att utkristalliseragemensamma interventionstyper.

  • 21.
    Broberg, Anders
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstads universitet.
    Appell, Petra
    Karlstads universitet.
    Axberg, Ulf
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Cater, Åsa
    Örebro universitet.
    Draxler, Helena
    Karlstads universitet.
    Eriksson, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Grip, Karin
    Göteborgs universitet .
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstads universitet.
    Hultmann, Ole
    Göteborgs universitet .
    Iversen, Clara
    Uppsala universitet.
    Röbäck de Souza, Karin
    Göteborgs universitet .
    Utveckling av bedömningsinstrument och stödinsatser för våldsutsatta barn2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Bryngelson, Birgitta
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Att arbeta med Self-Disclosure: En fenomenologisk studie av fem psykodynamiska psykoterapeuters upplevelser2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Within the psychodynamic theory, there are different opinions whether the therapist should tell the patient about himself. The therapists self-disclosure have been studied and discussed in psychoanalytic literature. The purpose of this article is to describe psychodynamic psychotherapists experiences of working with Self-Diclosure.

    Question: How do psychodynamic psychoterapists describe their experiences of working with Self-Disclosure?

    Method: The study uses the descriptive phenomenological human scientific method. Qualitative deep interviews was made with five psychodynamic psychotherapists at their office. The interviews were recorded and transcribed word for word. The material was divided into meaning units whose psychological content was elucidated, their mutual relations was studied and an understanding has been achieved. An continuous oscillation between the whole and the parts was made until the structure of the phenomenon was discovered.

    Result: In the analysis seven general structures were discovered. Milieu, personality, questions and answers, thoughts and feelings in the therapy room, life outside therapy, emotional experiences of Self-Disclosure and Self-Disclosure and its influence on the therapy process. Milieu and personality were regarded as inevitable Self-Disclosure. Verbal statements and emotional expressions could be both intentional and unintentional. Self-Disclosure can both hinder and facilitate the therapy process.

    Discussion: Safety and contact are emphasised as central in the therapy process by all therapists in the study. Self-Disclosure ought to be used with regard to both the patient and the phase in the therapy process. Both the content and the context are of importance for the consequence of Self-Disclosure. A pragmatic stance can favour the therapy process. The consequences cannot be foreseen but the most important is the therapist`s attention to how it is experienced and how it influence the therapy process.

  • 23.
    Callio, Carina
    Ersta Sköndal University College, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Att leva med ett syskon som lider av en ätstörning2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In my experience siblings of mentally ill children and adolescents have been an excluded group within health care. It is of great importance that their thoughts and feelings are expressed in order to find ways to meet up this group. The health care law emphasizes children´s need for information, advice and support. The study´s purpose was to examine adolescents’ experiences of living with a sibling suffering from an eating disorder. Three boys and two girls in the age 15-20 were interviewed in the study. The interviews were analyzed with a qualitative content analysis. This study confirms prior knowledge of adolescents’ experiences of living with a sibling who is suffering from an eating disorder. The adolescents are concerned about their siblings and lack information about their siblings’ illness and treatment progress. They are negatively affected by conflicts at mealtimes and several siblings are feeling shame about their siblings’ illness. There were differences in how brothers and sisters experienced their sisters´ disease. The girls seemed to be more emotionally affected. The girls described that their everyday life had been heavily influenced of their sisters´ illness, while the boys described that their everyday life with friends and activities weren´t affected to a greater extent. One new result that emerges as something positive was that several informants described that the eating disorder had led to better meal situations in the family. Although the adolescents described initial conflicts around meal times, it appeared that ones the parents took control and organized family meals together the adolescents could see that this was beneficiary for the whole family. The sisters described that they felt more togetherness now than before the sister had her eating disorder. If parents are able to create a good structure and an open and supportive climate at meals the negative effects for the family may be reduced and treatment may create an opportunity for the whole the family to find good meal routines.

  • 24.
    Carlgren, Gunilla
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Psykoanalytikers upplevelser av att patienten finns med i deras inre värld: utanför terapins tid och rum2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The relationship between analyst and patient in the therapeutic setting is of great importance in therapy, but what is the importance of this relationship outside the therapeutic setting?

    Question: The purpose of this study is to examine psychoanalysts’ experiences of the patient’s presence in their inner world, outside the therapeutic setting, how the analyst, the therapeutic collaboration and the therapeutic process are affected by this.

    Method: Five analysts were interviewed using semistructured qualitative interview. The interviews were analyzed using IPA.

    Results: The analysts described experiences of a calm, creative, fluid, dreamlike presence of the patient, of a burdening presence characterized by concern, of a presence characterized by feelings of both affection and concern, of a transference and counter transference characterized by aggression, where the analyst feels occupied by the patient, and of the patient’s presence linked to frame break.

    Discussion: All analysts stated that the patients had become internal objects, and a permanent part of their inner world. This could be experienced as both enriching, with feelings of joy, satisfaction and creativity, and demanding, with feelings of concern, frustration and anger. In both cases this presence was, however, experienced as an asset and a tool in the therapeutic process.

  • 25.
    Carlsson, Heléne
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    När traumat sätter sätter sig i kroppen: Affektreglering och somatoforma dissociationer hos patienter2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Experiences of trauma that not are taken care of may give somatic symptoms, in some cases as signs of dissociation, so called somatoform dissociations. Patients with these symptoms search for help in the medical care where insufficient knowledge of trauma symptoms can delay adequate treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate therapists’ experiences of therapy with traumatized patients that have somatoform dissociations. The questions to be asked are: Which experiences do psychotherapists have of affect regulation and alliance with traumatized patients? Which symptoms do patients have that can be seen as somatoform dissociations? How can you be aware of trauma related problems in the medical care? The method is a qualitative approach based on interviews of five legitimated psychotherapists working with traumatized patients. The result shows that somatic symptoms are common in traumatized patients and that some symptoms can be seen as somatoform dissociations. The somatic symptoms can be seen as signs of unprocessed affects and affect regulation is a way to reduce the symptoms. In psychotherapy faith is an important part of the alliance. Derived conclusions are that somatoform dissociations need to be highlighted so that the link between somatic symptoms and dissociation can be clarified. In the medical care the knowledge of trauma is essential so that the patient also gets help with affect regulation and not only further medical treatment of somatic and psychological symptoms.

  • 26.
    Danielsson, Birgitta
    Ersta Sköndal University College, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Den psykodynamiska psykoterapin: en behandling och/eller en moralisk etisk praxis?2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning: Eftersom den psykodynamiska psykoterapin har kraftig konkurrens från andra terapiformer, samtidigt som kraven på effektivitet, snabbhet och evidens från hälso- och sjukvårdsetablissemanget är starka, är det viktigt att som psykodynamiker delta i diskursen kring den psykodynamiska psykoterapins vetenskapsteoretiska status. Hur kan man karakterisera den psykodynamiska psykoterapin om den dels inte är identisk med psykoanalys, dels heller inte automatiskt kan inordnas i det medicinsk-biologiska paradigmet? Uppsatsen har som syfte att definiera och undersöka om psykodynamisk psykoterapi kan betraktas som behandling och/eller en moralisk etisk praxis.

    Frågeställningar: Psykodynamisk psykoterapi – är den en egen humanvetenskap? Hur kan man definiera och se på behandling och behandlingsmål i den psykodynamiska psykoterapin?

    Metod: Litteraturstudie med en hermeneutisk ansats.

    Resultat: Det finns olika sätt att se på den psykodynamiska psykoterapin när det gäller dess vetenskaplighet. Frågan om psykodynamisk psykoterapi är behandling i gängse medicinsk bemärkelse, har heller inget enkelt entydigt svar. Till synen på behandling hör också målet med densamma. Hur man betraktar behandlingsfrågan blir också vägledande för hur man ser på behandlingsmålet. En skiljelinje går mellan uppfattningen om den psykodynamiska psykoterapin som vetenskap och/eller teknik. Diskussionen om psykodynamisk psykoterapi är en vetenskap eller flera, har betydelse för dess ställning i den vetenskapliga världen.

    Diskussion: Valet av litteraturstudie som metod avgjordes på grundval uppsatsens syfte och karaktär. Det är möjligt att se den psykodynamiska psykoterapin i annat vetenskapligt ljus än det positivistiska t.ex. fenomenologiskt och hermeneutiskt. Psykodynamisk psykoterapi kan ses både som en vetenskap och en teknik samt som en etisk verksamhetspraxis. Slutsatsen för uppsatsarbetet är att man kan se på den psykodynamiska psykoterapin som en moralisk, etisk behandlingsmetod som med både hermeneutiska och fenomenologiska metoder/tekniker söker uppnå inre frihet, självkännedom och ansvarstagande för medvetnare livsval hos subjektet. Behandlingsmålet blir då att minska neurotiskt och annat lidande hos subjektet samtidigt som lidandets omedvetna ursprung integreras.

  • 27.
    Deines, Karin
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Klienters upplevelser av Bildterapi inom en Psykodynamisk terapi2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Art therapy/Art psychotherapy is a method in which image creation is used for therapeutic purposes. Art therapy as a method is found in different psychotherapeutic orientations, but the psychodynamic theory is most common. In recent years, several overview studies and RCT studies on Art Therapy as a treatment method have been published. Studies where clients have come to terms and shared their experience of the method are so far less widespread. This study aims to investigate clients' subjective experience of Art Therapy in psychodynamic therapy.

    Issues: How does the client experience Art Therapy in a psychodynamic therapy? How does the client experience the impact of Art Therapy on the relationship with the therapist? How does the client experience that Art Therapy affects the understanding of him or herself?

    Method: The study is based on interviews from five women between 36 and 63 years of age who participated in Art Therapy in psychodynamic therapy. Interview data were analyzed using Interpreting Phenomenological Analysis.

    Result: Therapeutic alliance proved to be of great importance and, according to the participants, was mainly due to the therapist's professionalism and ability to create security. Art Therapy was further perceived as a method that facilitated expressing, becoming aware and managing emotions and a method that helped the participant to let go of control and lessen the defence. The participants emphasized the fact that the image revealed both conscious and unconscious feelings and thoughts in a concrete way. Finally, the results showed that the participants’ expressed that they had gained self-understanding and changed their self-image. All the participants in the study emphasized the impossibility that in words to express everything that the images could reveal.

    Discussion: The outcome was discussed, inter alia, from other therapies where great emphasis is placed on consciousness, expressing and managing emotions. The therapeutic relationship was considered to be crucial but did not appear to be primarily a result of the Art Therapy method. The fact that the images were saved and were available for later consideration and discussion was, according to the participants, that their own change process became apparent in a visible way. Finally, the importance of giving space in research for clients’ subjective experience was discussed.  

  • 28.
    Eklöf, Maria
    Ersta Sköndal University College, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Bildterapi med PTSD-patienter2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to visualize how arttherapists work with adults suffering from PTSD, and how differences and similarities in the approaches are expressed. The aim was also to find out more about how arttherapy in PTSD is conducted as well as what aspects the therapists themselves consider to be active parts of the treatment.

    The issues were: a) Do arttherapists operate differently in PTSD than with other problems? b) What elements in the therapeutic work are especially effective with PTSD, according to the arttherapists?

    The method consists of semi-structured interviews with six artherapists, all with experience in meeting patients with PTSD. Five interviews were made through personal meetings and one via Skype. The interviews were recorded digitally, transcribed and then processed through Thematic Analysis.

    The results of the survey shows that arttherapists maintain their therapeutic method regardless of the patient’s problems but that their approaches change when PTSD is known from the start of the therapy. In arttherapy with PTSD arttherapists notice several crucial factors, e.g. the created image as an important part, as well as creativity that involves embodied memories and facilitate processing. The discussion presents thoughts on the survey design, arttherapy's position as treatment in PTSD and the lack of research that makes art therapy failing to receive recognition.

  • 29.
    Elmér, Ingrid
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Från "förälder på heltid" till "förälder på deltid": En kvalitativ studie av fem personers upplevelser2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In Sweden, 35% of thechildren whose parents are separated have alternating residence i.e. they livehalf of the time with their mother and father respectively. Questions: Howhave separate parents experienced this process of adjustment from having been a"full-time parent"  in the nuclear family to becoming a"part-time parent" and see the child every fortnight and how do theyexperience that their relation to the children and those around has changedafter the adjustment? Method: A qualitative method has been chosen andfive separate parents living apart for at least 3 years have been interviewedin accordance with a semi-structured interview guide. Results: Theresult reveals that a separation is a process whose course of events startswith various strains within the nuclear family and leads to practical,emotional, social and relational changes that vary over time. Discussion:The result has been analysed focusing on the question to what extent it isbased on the three theories: the Transition theory, the Crisis theory and theEx-theory. The experiences of the informants correspond with all the threetheories in different parts. The separation process with alternating residenceinvolves a profound change going on parallelly; in the intrapsychic world (the Crisistheory), changes relating to identity and role and also witin the relationalworld towards the children as well as to other grown-ups (the Ex-theory). TheTransition theory makes a more differentiated description of the processpossible by means of its six factors. 

  • 30.
    Engblom, Teresia
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Anknytningsstil och upplevelse av psykosocial arbetsmiljö2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Although attachment theory is widely studied within the field of developmental psychological research, work environment research frequently disregards attachment-related individual characteristics of co-workers when studying workplace environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of attachment style on the perception of psychosocial work environment.

    Research question: How does attachment style relate to the experience of demands, influence and social support at work?

    Method: Nurses and assistant nurses employed at the emergency departments, Skåne University Hospital (n = 218), were asked to answer the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ) and Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ).

    Results: A total of 135 questionnaires (62%) were included in the study. In the majority of the analyses no correlations were found between attachment style and experience of psychosocial work environment. A lower degree of perceived support from colleagues was, however, related to higher discomfort with closeness and relationships as secondary. An association between higher degree of perceived support from peers and higher degree of confidence in self and others was found. Securely attached individuals were less burdened by quantitative requirements and experienced more support from peers than insecure attached individuals.

    Discussion/conclusion: There is only a weak relationship between attachment style and experience of demands, influence and social support at work. This might partly be explained by the nature of the questionnaires, the homogeneity of the study population and missing cases. The statistically significant correlations that were found are supported by findings in previous studies.

  • 31.
    Eriksson, Mats Einar
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    "Händer det något särskilt?": En intervjustudie om män i terapi hos manliga psykoterapeuter.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning: Färre män än kvinnor söker sig till psykodynamisk terapi, och den mesta kunskapen om män i terapi begränsar sig till subgrupper av män med missbruksproblematik eller kriminalitet. Det är därför väsentligt att öka kunskapen om män i mer generellt inriktad psykodynamisk terapi. Tidigare studier indikerar att när både terapeut och patient är män uppstår särskilda förutsättningar i terapin, som kan försvåra den samkönade terapin. Förståelse av vad som händer i manligt samkönade terapier kan underlätta för män som söker hjälp i psykodynamisk terapi.

    Frågeställning: Hur upplever yrkesverksamma manliga terapeuter terapimötet med manliga patienter?

    Metod: Fem manliga terapeuter intervjuades i semistrukturerade enskilda intervjuer. Materialet bearbetades med tematisk kvalitativ analys.

    Resultat: Resultatet visar att informanterna upplever särskilda förutsättningar i manligt samkönade terapier vad gäller relationen till terapeuten, skam, kontroll, terapimålet och själva terapisituationen. De beskriver att detta kan relateras till mäns tendens att leva upp till normativ maskulinitet även i terapirummet. Dock kan terapeuten fungera som rollmodell och visa på alternativ till normativ maskulinitet.

    Diskussion: Resultaten överensstämmer med tidigare forskning som påvisat mäns svårigheter att avvika från normativ maskulinitet i terapisituationen. Föreliggande studie uppmärksammar dessutom den manlige terapeutens funktion som rollmodell för alternativa maskuliniter, vilket kan sammankopplas med R. W. Connells teorier om maskuliniteter som ett differentierat begrepp. Ytterligare forskning om män i samkönade terapier är angelägen, i syfte att underlätta för hjälpbehövande män att söka terapi samt för att hjälpa terapeuter att möta män.

  • 32.
    Erixon, Katarina
    Ersta Sköndal University College, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Erfarna psykoterapeuter i samtal om sexualitet2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning: Frågeställningar runt sexualitet är ofta ett känsligt ämne och kan därmed vara svåra att hantera i psykoterapi. Många psykoterapeuter upplever sig försiktiga avseende ämnesområdet, båda i att samtala, använda sexuella termer, hantera känslor av attraktion både i det verkliga mötet samt i överföring och motöverföring.  Samtidigt har sexualiteten som företeelse försvunnit ur kliniska falldragningar.

    Syftet med studien var att belysa om och hur erfarna psykoterapeuter var beredda att möta patienters behov av att bearbeta sin sexualitet under psykoterapeutiska möten.

    Metod: Utifrån ett bekvämlighetsurval genomfördes semistrukturerade intervjuer med sju legitimerade psykologer/psykoterapeuter, som analyserades utifrån riktlinjerna för klassisk grounded theory. Metoden valdes för att belysa ett subjektivt upplevt huvudproblem och hur psykoterapeuterna hanterade detta.

    Resultatet visade att psykoterapeuterna var beredda att bearbeta sexualitet med sina patienter om behovet fanns, utan att belasta patienten mer än vad han/hon tålde. För att göra detta möjligt menade psykoterapeuterna att det var viktigt att vara lyhörd och intuitiv i situationen. Man vilade också i och tog stöd av sin erfarenhet och den kompetens man hade utvecklat genom åren. Man bearbetade sexualiteten antingen explicit eller implicit i samtalen och en nödvändig förutsättning för detta var att förtroendet mellan terapeut och patient hade utvecklats över tid. Ramar och gränser i det terapeutiska mötet tryggade patienten och terapeuten och detta möjliggjorde bearbetning.

    Diskussion: Känslor av, bland annat skam både hos terapeut och patient vilka förknippas med nakenhet och sexualitet, kunde avvärja gränsöverskridanden i terapin men också vara ett hinder.  Det var viktigt att följa affekterna i mötet, både egna och patientens, för att veta om och hur bearbetning skulle ske. Utifrån resultatet rekommenderas att yngre kollegor får stöd och hjälp av mer erfarna psykoterapeuter, via handledning och kollegiala samtal, för att, vid behov, möjliggöra och underlätta bearbetning av patientens sexualitet i det psykoterapeutiska samtalet 

  • 33.
    Erlandsson, Bo
    Ersta Sköndal University College, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Förväntningar på en psykoterapeutisk relation: likheter och skillnader mellan män och kvinnor2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur kommer det sig att patienter i psykoterapi till övervägande del är kvinnor? Syftet med studien har, utifrån antagandet att psykisk ohälsa drabbar kvinnor och män ungefär lika, varit att undersöka om mäns och kvinnors eventuellt skilda förväntningar på en psykoterapeutisk relation kan utgöra ett möjligt delsvar. Studien har haft en explorativ utgångspunkt i syfte att ge uppslag snarare än generaliserbara svar.

    Respondenter var medarbetare på olika arbetsplatser, till största delen inom kyrklig sektor (n=68, 41% män, 59% kvinnor). Datainsamling skedde genom anonym enkät vars  utgångspunkt hämtats i tidigare forskning kring skillnader mellan mäns och kvinnors förväntningar.

    Som alternativ till kön har studien även prövat självskattningar av traditionellt maskulina och/eller feminina personlighetsdrag (BSRISE) samt grundläggande förhållningssätt i betydelsefulla relationer.

    Svaren har analyserats i form av korstabeller. Resultatet gav att respondentgruppen var förhållandevis överens om terapeutens första prioritet – att hålla fokus på patientens problem och mål med terapin. Men här fanns även tendenser till vissa skillnader.

  • 34.
    Faraj, Diana
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Patienters upplevelse och användning av humor i pågående terapier2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Genuine humor, joy and jokes can create a relief in human life, just as conflicts, pain and anxiety these emotions have been as prominent. The use of humor in therapy and the function of humor in the therapeutic process have had a very limited role in the psychotherapeutic world.

    Question formulation: What are the patient’s experiences of humor in a psychotherapeutic relationship? How do patients consider that humor may have affected the psychotherapeutic process?

    Method: The study has a qualitative research approach. Five participants attending psychotherapy were interviewed. The interviews were analyzed and interpreted based on a qualitative content analysis.

    Results: Humor in therapy can create a good alliance through the therapist's participation, provide a greater sense of freedom and meaningfulness to the participant, bringing a change in the perceived problem or event in a more humorous way, and be a tool to process the view of past experiences. The use of humor strengthens participants' self-perception, interest in their own development, and finally the ability to develop trust with the therapist.

    Discussion: Humor can be a very effective and stimulating part of psychotherapy. The study shows the use of humor has mostly positive effects with only a few negative effects. The use of humor can provide optimal conditions for a positive therapy work and can be an important bearing on the therapeutic relationship and process. Most researchers and therapists contradict the use of humor and sees it as a defense mechanism. Previous research describes the emergence of humor therapy as extremely limited.

  • 35.
    Feltham, Ulla
    Ersta Sköndal University College, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Viktigaste upplevelsen i att vara nära anhörig till en person med demenssjukdom2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning: Demens är en folksjukdom i Sverige. De drabbade väntas stiga i antal och därmed stiger också antalet nära anhöriga. Att vara nära anhörig till en demenssjuk person innebär stora påfrestningar och den anhöriga kan behöva hjälp med att hantera sin sorg och andra känslor som väcks vid försämring av den sjuke och i samband med överlämnandet av den sjuke till ett demensboende.

    Frågeställningar: Vad är den viktigaste upplevelsen i att vara nära anhörig till en demenssjuk person? Hur påverkas man av bemötandet från vårdpersonal vid överlämnandet av vården av en nära anhörig med demens till ett demensboende?

    Metod: Klassisk Grounded Theory enligt Glaser

    Resultat: Den aktuella studien visar att största svårigheten för en nära anhörig till en demenssjuk person är att släppa taget om vården av den demenssjuke. Kärnkategorin beskriver att den anhörige pendlar mellan att känna sig otrygg och utlämnad. Det andra ytterläget av pendelrörelsen beskriver en mer integrerad upplevelse, där man kan överlåta vården av den sjuke till demensboendet och se mer nyanserat på situationen och ta vara på sina egna behov. Detta ytterläge i pendelrörelsen kan benämnas trygg.

    Diskussion: Den förlust som sjukdomen medför ger upphov till skuld och skam hos den nära anhörige. Obearbetade känslor kan ge upphov till komplicerad sorg. I den påfrestande situationen då den sjuke flyttas till ett demensboende upplevs ofta svårighet med kommunikation med vårdpersonal som hotfullt. För att underlätta för den nära anhörige behövs utbildning och stöd för både formella som informella vårdgivare.

     

  • 36.
    Ferngren, Leyla
    Ersta Sköndal University College, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    En inblick i trauma hos personer med krigsupplevelser genom analys och jämförelser av deras drömmar2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Trauma affects dreams and its processing skills of content. An important point is that the etiology of PTSD is considered to be a traumatic experience that can lead to recurrent nightmares. Today there are many people in the community who suffer from trauma and trauma-related problems making the development of trauma theory be of central importance for providing good treatment. The aim of this study is to contribute knowledge about how traumatic experiences are processed in dreams with a focus on affects and interactions with other people that can lead to further development of psychodynamic trauma theory.

    Research questions:

     What are the differencesindreamsbetween thegroupsin terms of emotions ?

     What are thekey themespresent inboth groupsdreams andhowdoes it lookincomparisonbetween the groups?

    Method: The used method is a combined quantitative and qualitative approach where 60 dreams from former war veterans studied and compared in two groups.

    Results: Results of the study demonstrate traumas negative effects on affect regulation skills and relationships. It also highlights both the dream's meaning as an entrance to the psychic life to gain insight into how traumatic events and affects handled, and the function of dreaming in affect regulation as an important processing factor for trauma.

    Discussion: The study results are in many aspects in line with previous research and theory, but in particular, two aspects of the results deserve to be highlighted: The dream as an entrance for the psychic life: 1. how traumatic events and affects handled; 2. Which factors could be of importance in the processing of trauma.

  • 37.
    Forell, Lisa
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Genusperspektiv i psykoterapi2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: There are few studies about the role of gender perspective and it’s use in psychotherapy. The purpose with this study is to describe how a group of legitimized psychotherapists use gender perspective in the therapeutic room and how they define the concept.

    Question formulations: How do psychodynamic orientated psychotherapists define gender perspective and its meaning for them? In what way do they use gender perspective in the therapeutic work?

    Method: A qualitative investigative method has been used where five legitimized psychotherapists, all women was interviewed in-depth. The result was analyzed and processed through thematic analysis method.

    Result: The participants share awareness of the different conditions between men and women in society. The study shows that the therapists have different approach to the practice with gender perspective. Some of the informants believe that openness and transparency with gender perspective towards the patient is required while others bring it as a silent knowledge into the therapy room.

    Discussion: The results are discussed from earlier research on feministic theory. The problem with connecting the own knowledge to the practice agree with earlier research and studies.

  • 38.
    Forssén, Ingegerd
    Ersta Sköndal University College, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Leva vidare: efter förlusten av en livskramrat2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning: Död och förluster drabbar oss alla förr eller senare. Ibland kan sorgen bli så svår så att den efterlevande förlorar livslusten. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vad som var till hjälp för att leva vidare efter förlusten av en livskamrat sedan många år. De deltagande intervjupersonerna hade sökt sig till en så kallad sorgegrupp, också kallad leva vidaregrupp, för att få stöd i sin sorgeprocess.

    Frågeställningar: Vad har varit till hjälp för att vilja leva vidare efter förlusten av en livskamrat? Vad försvårar i det fortsatta livet? Hur har det gått att dela sorgen med eventuella barn?

    Metod: Kvalitativ intervjustudie av explorativ art. Intervjupersonerna var fyra kvinnor och en man i åldrarna 64 – 78 år.

    Resultat: Studien har visat att det är betydelsefullt för den sörjande att få dela sorgen med andra i samma situation genom samtal för att få mod att leva vidare. Delandet har inneburit en upplevelse av att ha blivit bekräftad och förstådd på ett djupt inre plan. Detta delande var mer betydelsefullt än att dela sorgen med barnen.

    Diskussion: Till Antonovsky kan relateras den avgörande betydelse det många gånger upprepade berättandet hade för att erhålla en förnyad livslust. Bearbetningen genom samtalet gjorde det som hade hänt begripligt och mötet med andras livshistorier gjorde att det blev hanterbart och vänskapen med grupp-deltagarna genom deras förståelse och deltagande gjorde att en ny meningsfullhet växte fram. Det blir en känsla av sammanhang, KASAM, som gör att livslusten återkommer.

  • 39.
    Friberg Andersson, Christina
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Psykoterapeutstudenter beskriver psykoterapeutisk ram: En kvalitativ innehållsanalys2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Psychotherapeutic frame is a phenomenon which is fundamental to establish during therapist education. What psychotherapists students actually understand and can describe constitute a quality assurance of what students perceive is needed in form of frame, in relation to the patients but also in relation to the educational situation. To be compared with the prevailing theory and empiricism.

    The aim of the study was to let psychotherapist students describe their idea of what constitutes the phenomenon frame of psychodynamic therapy.

    Issues: What perceive and describe psychotherapist students as psychodynamic therapeutic frame?

    Method: This study has a hermeneutical approach and processing method is qualitative content analysis. The data collection method is interviews.

    Results: The result of the issue manifests as three categories with subcategories. Category one is love-play, with subcategories as responsibility and interpersonal. Category two is awareness, with subcategories as physical messages, continuity and opinion. Category three is potential, with subcategories as symbolize and integrate.

    Discussion: What psychotherapist students describe as constants in psychodynamic therapeutic frame, harmony above all with what the literature and research describes as inner and outer frame. The result has few constants in the form of meta- framework, which may be understood as that there is a lack of awareness in establishing meta- frame. In the extension this unawareness limits students influence on education and profession.

  • 40.
    Geinäs, Ulrika
    Ersta Sköndal University College, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Hur påverkas individens relation till familj och trossamfund vid ett utträde: En kvalitativ studie utifrån fem personers upplevelse2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on people who have left one of the classic church denominations. Even if the departure is based on their individual beliefs, it usually involves an upheaval to seek a new identity and context. The intention of the study is to explore how the individual's relationship to family and faith communities was affected by the exit. Five people who left their church communities were interviewed using semi-structured qualitative interviews.

    Exitprocess can be seen as a left of a role that has been central to the individual's self-identity. In a new identity the creation of a new role are fragments of the old role left into the new identity that together form an ex-roll. The study results show that there was a clear distinction between how the faith was communicated in the congregation and within the family system. Although the preaching affected both personal lifestyle and family structure it was not discussed between children and parents. The result also shows that the respondents took an ex-role in the cultural clash between the non-Christian and authoritarian image of God, which led to the conclusion that they finally left the community. In the discussion, it appears that the Christian faith can continue to be of importance in an ex-roll, although it has become more complicated. The image of God as informants received may be related to the relationship with the parents and their extension.

  • 41.
    Gidlööf, Catharina
    Ersta Sköndal University College, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Riskerar mediciner att bli substitut för det behandlande samtalet?: en kvalitativ studie kring fyra psykoterapeuter och en läkares erfarenhet av psykoterapi och psykofarmaka.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to describe experiences gained from the use of psychotropic drugs and/or psychotherapy. The study is qualitative in nature and based on interviews with four psychotherapists and physicians. The study takes as its basis a phenomenological perspective. The interviews were analyzed as unprejudiced as possible using the EPP method. The work was based on five overreaching issues; How do we perceive suffering, meaning in relation to psychotropic drugs? Is an individual's ability to feel and think affected by regular use of psychotropic drugs? Can an individual who suffers expect guidance via individual treatment or via available combined treatments? Is an individuals suffering reduced by setting words to the anxiety in psychotherapy? How does the pharmaceutical industry discuss the issue of individual mental suffering? These issues have been tested against a philosophical background that asks the question: Is medicalisation a way of medicating against life itself, a way of making society's shortcomings the individual`s problem? The results are presented in five synopsis which say that suffering can be seen as force for change. Antidepressants have a tendency to numb thoughts and feelings. The patient's own will is important. Medication tends to be a substitute for meeting people and the relationship to pharmaceutical companies problematic for therapists as the industry is also a profit machine.

  • 42.
    Granath Nerell, Karin
    Ersta Sköndal University College, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Äldre personers relationer och erfarenheter av sin ursprungsfamilj2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: It is important to increase awareness of the growing social group of individuals who are 65 years and older according to the Stockholm County Council (2013). This study has investigated how this social group describes their relationships with their family of origin.

    Research question: How to describe older individuals their relationships with their family of origin retrospectively? Which relational experience emerges as significant in their stories?

    Method: The study's methodological choices are qualitative and data collection was made up of unstructured interview form. Total interviewed 5 people.

    Results: The results reported from different time periods and three themes that emerged from the analysis: Childhood and adolescence , young adult and identity munity and adulthood and autonomy.

    Discussion: The relationship today is based on memories when respondents look back on their lives. Mom described having had too much influence during childhood and father is described as important - especially later age. Bands siblings usually have strengthened during adulthood. Respondents also describe that they have found strategies to accept, forgive and reconcile with the life they have lived so far - as the older they become, which agrees well with the theory of gerotrancendens ( Tornstam, 2010).

  • 43.
    Granqvist, Linda
    Ersta Sköndal University College, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Självbild hos barn med ADHD-diagnos och deras syn på hur de betraktas av sin närmaste omgivning2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: A number of studies have examined children with ADHD, how it is to live with this diagnosis, and the different perspectives of parents, teachers and siblings. In several studies, it has been shown that children with ADHD often overestimate their capability compared to other persons’ assessment of their capability. This phenomenon is called “positive illusory bias” (PIB) (Hoza, Pelham, Dobbs, Owen &Pillow, 2002). The aim of this study is to examine how ADHD-children describe themselves and how they think that they would be described by their family, teachers, and mates. It seems that this has not previously been studied.

    Questions: How do children with ADHD describe themselves? How do these children think that they would be described by their family, teachers and mates?

    Method: Eight children, diagnosed with ADHD and between 9 and 12 years of age, are interviewed with semi-structured questions and the answers have been analysed by thematic methodology.

    Result: In contrast to previous studies, most children did not express any clear ADHD-identity in their description of themselves. However, ADHD-symptoms were quite common in their accounts of how they thought that their parents and teachers would describe them. This was in contrast to their accounts of how they thought that their mates would describe them, where the children seldom mentioned aspects related to ADHD-symptoms.

    Discussion: The discussion of the results is based on the concept of “positional objectivity” (Sen, 1993), in which several plausible positional parameters are presented.

  • 44.
    Green, Wiveca
    Ersta Sköndal University College, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Faktorer som påverkar relationerna i styvfamiljen2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An investigation of stepparents experiences of what factors influence the stepfamily and the relationships in stepfamilies.Research question: Which are the factors that stepparents experience influence the relationships in the stepfamily?This study uses a qualitative methodology. Five stepparents have been interviewed and the interviews have been analyzed using thematic analysis.Results: Three themes appeared from the analysis; building relationships, conflicts and feelings of quilt. If the relationships in the stepfamily have been developed and been build up it influence the stepfamily in a positive way. The stepparent role needs to be clarified, especially when it comes to responsibility and powers of the stepparent. When conflicts occur in the stepfamily the stepparent can take the role of being a mediator that could be a positive factor. When there is a conflict between the biological parents the children could take different roles that influence the family in a negative way. If the biological parent is’t engaged in the children, feelings of guilt could be developed among the other parent. If a biological parent is long term sick the child can take responsibility for this parent and it can affect so that the child have less or no contact with the other parent.

  • 45.
    Haglund Svensson, Jeanette
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Att ha deltagit i föräldragrupp för anhöriga till beroende: en studie av klienttillfredsställelse2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Being a relative of a person with an addiction disease involves a strong mental and physical stress. An important protection factor for the relatives is breaking the silence and shame and seek help. Ersta Vändpunkten is a clinic for these relatives and offers educational groups with a therapeutic objective. This study focuses on program for parents/relatives to children in the so-called little child group (4-6 years). Focus in the program is to support the parents in how they can help the child to understand what is happening in the family and how to take the child’s perspective. The aim of the study is to share the parent’s experiences of participating in this group. Questions: How has participation in the parenting program affected parenting ability? How has participation in the parent group affected the family? Methods: This is a web-based survey, the questionnaire has been analyzed with descriptive statistics. Results: 30 parents/relatives have been asked to participate of whom 17 responded (57%). The survey reveals that the parent/relative now has an improved relationship with the child and that communication in the family has changed for the better. Other relationships, to relatives, friends and to the addictive part have not changed noticeably. All respondents feel the child’s and their own self-esteem have become much better/better after participating. There is also a consensus among respondents that their ability to set boundaries towards the addicted part has become much better/better. Discussion: While the high non-response rate endangers firm conclusions, the findings are nevertheless promising.

  • 46.
    Halldorsdottir, Kristin
    Ersta Sköndal University College, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Hjälp att få?: 255 SIS-placerade ungdomars upplevelse av hjälp med familjeproblem2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Each year over 1000 adolescents are placed within the National Board of Institutional Care (SiS) of which half stay in the facilities for treatment. The essay is built from information gathered through ADAD interviews (Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis) performed during registration and discharge of adolescents from SiS. The questions that are meant to be answered are; “How do the treatment placed adolescents in SiS apprehend the help they get with their family related problems?” and “Are there visible connections between gender or ethnic origin and the adolescent’s experience of help with the family related problems during the placement period?” During the registration the boys gave an expression of not being in need of help, the girls gave an expression of being in need of help, significance (p<.05). At discharge no clear differences appears in degree of satisfaction. The results also show a significant difference (p<.05). that foreign-born adolescents greater than Swedish-born stated that it is important to get help with family problems during the investment period. At discharge no clear differences appears in degree of satisfaction.

  • 47.
    Hartman, Amanda
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Familjebehandling under tvång: Familjebehandlares upplevelser kring den terapeutiska alliansens betydlese inom kommunal familjebehandling2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The study investigates how family treatment done under coercion affects the ability of family therapists to create therapeutic alliance with families, and if this affects the therapist’s feelings of the possibility of creating changes. Questions: How family therapists are affected in their work to create a therapeutic alliance when the family is under / threatening care of young persons act (LVU)? Are there important relational elements in treatment that contribute to change when there is LVU or threat of LVU? Method: Qualitative interview investigation and thematic analysis. Results: The results of the study show that therapists feel it is of the utmost importance that they prove to be a "normal person", are given the opportunity to co-operate with the family and that they raise strengths rather than weaknesses, to reach an alliance. The result also shows that respondents experience it as aggravating when it comes to the creation of alliance, as collaboration with social services is sometimes complicated. They find it easier to create alliance when the family themselves ask for treatment. They believe that change is possible, albeit more difficult, when coercion exists. Discussion: The outcome of the study is discussed, partly from an intersubjective and systemic perspective.

  • 48.
    Hedström, Mikael
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Allians med ungdomar i familjeterapi2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses and examines how a number of family therapists look at the processes and factors related to how to build alliance with adolescents in family therapy. The current state of knowledge on this issue raises the important thing to get right alliance with adolescents in family therapy in terms of how successful and Goal Completions therapy becomes. The study shows that therapists have to consider that youth are in a development psychological position when they approach the young people with a generous dose of respect and sensitivity, as well as the growing awareness that young people are particularly sensitive and observant of how family therapists act in relation to them and their parents.

  • 49.
    Hendar, Karin
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Våld i nära relationer: Fem kvinnors upplevelser och erfarenheter av längre samtalskontakt2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Intimate partner violence is a global health problem in today’s society, which affects women, men and children. Ultimately, it is the responsibility of the local council to provide victims of violence with sufficient help and support. This study focuses on the women’s situation and strives to make their voices heard when it comes to what help should be provided. The objective of this study has been to research how women subjected to violence, have experienced extended counselling. 

    Research questions: How is extended counselling experienced by women who have been subject to intimate partner violence? What part of the counselling have they found helpful? What do they miss?

    Method: Five women, who have been subjected to intimate partner violence and who have completed extended counselling, were interviewed. The study has a qualitative and hermeneutic approach and has been processed using a thematic method of analysis.

    Results: The results of the study show that it is important for the women to be able to discuss all aspects of their lives, not just the violence aspects. The results also stress that it is important that the therapist is experienced in the field of intimate partner violence and is used to meeting women who have been subjected to violence. The women must be given enough time and space to process potentially traumatic experiences and there has to be an understanding that feelings of shame can make the story harder to tell. The interviewed women partly lacked the opportunity to talk more about shame during the treatment and also wanted repeated information on the likely extent of the treatment period.

    Discussion: This group of patients exposed to violence might require more extensive counselling, which should include processing the feelings of shame, and the framework for the treatment should be made clear. The women’s efforts in creating a new life story are facilitated through a trusting cooperation. The impression that the counselling provides improved self-esteem and security is stressed, whilst accepting what has happened, to some extent, without accepting the violence per se.

  • 50.
    Henriksson, Annette
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Relationen mellan aktiviteter med hästar och psykosocial utveckling hos barn med autismdiagnos: En kvalitativ studie av föräldrars erfarenheter2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has been conducted in order to increase knowledge about psychosocial development in children with autism diagnosis in relationship to activities with horses. The study is qualitative, based on five interviews with parents and includes field observations. The interviews have been processed according to inductive thematic analysis and are reported under three themes related to the childrens interaction with their environment. The result shows that the activity with horses has positive impact on the children's desire and ability to interact and communicate with the outside world. The skills manifests in interaction with children as well as with adults, both within the family and in other settings. The result of the study indicates conformity with previous research, and the event's multi-facetted content and effects are made visible. Surprising results are experiences of the children's different relationship and communication with horses, and observations of the immediate impact on the children when riding. Research from a family perspective highligtening the voice of the child is proposed, as well as further research on physiological effects of horseback riding in reltionship to social interacting.

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