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  • 1.
    Asplund, Kenneth
    et al.
    University of Tromsø, Norway.
    Jansson, Lilian
    Umeå universitet.
    Norberg, Astrid
    Umeå universitet.
    Facial Expressions of Patients With Dementia: A Comparison of Two Methods of Interpretation1995In: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 527-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two methods of interpreting the videotaped facial expressions of four patients with severe dementia of the Alzheimer type were compared. Interpretations of facial expressions performed by means of unstructured naturalistic judgements revealed episodes when the four patients exhibited anger, disgust, happiness, sadness, and surprise. When these episodes were assessed by use of modified version of the Facial Action Coding System, there was, in total, 48% agreement between the two methods. The highest agreement, 98%, occurred for happiness shown by one patient. It was concluded that more emotions could be judged by means of the unstructured naturalistic method, which is based on an awareness of the total situation that facilitates imputing meaning into the patients' cues. It is a difficult task to find a balance between imputing too much meaning into the severely demented patients' sparse and unclear cues and ignoring the possibility that there is some meaning to be interpreted.

  • 2.
    Wimo, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Asplund, Kenneth
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Mattsson, Bengt
    Mariehem Primary Health Care Center, Umeå, Sweden.
    Adolofsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet.
    Lundgren, Kjerstin
    Granloholm Primary Health Care Center, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Patients with dementia in group living: experiences 4 years after admission1995In: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 123-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sixteen patients with dementia were studied 4 years after admission to group-living (GL) units, an intermediate level of dementia care. Of eight patients who were still alive, four lived in the GL units and four had been institutionalized. The eight patients who had died had spent 89% of their survival time in GL. Aggression was the most frequent cause of institutionalization.

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