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  • 1. Aléx, Lena
    et al.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Norberg, Astrid
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research. Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Lundman, Berit
    Constructions of various femininities among the oldest old women.2006In: Health Care for Women International, ISSN 0739-9332, E-ISSN 1096-4665, Vol. 27, no 10, p. 853-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study forms part of the Umeå 85+ Study, and the aim was to explore various gendered constructions of femininities among the oldest old women. Femininities are seen as various ways of shaping oneself as a woman in relation to the impact of historical, social, and cultural circumstances. Thematic narratives were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Through interpreting these narratives in the light of gender theories, we were able to discern four femininities: "being connected," "being an actor," "living in the shadow of others," and "being alienated." The oldest old women displayed complex outlooks on femininities, and no femininity was interpreted as being in the center related to the other femininities. Further research is needed in order to disclose the complexity of femininities related to factors such as social class, ethnicity, and financial situation among the oldest old, and to acquire a greater knowledge of various femininities.

  • 2. Aléx, Lena
    et al.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Norberg, Astrid
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research. Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Lundman, Berit
    Balancing within various discourses--the art of being old and living as a Sami woman.2006In: Health Care for Women International, ISSN 0739-9332, E-ISSN 1096-4665, Vol. 27, no 10, p. 873-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this part of the Umeå 85+ Study was to explore how indigenous women narrate their lives and their experience of being old as Sami women. Interviews with 9 old Sami women were analyzed using grounded theory. The categories identified were "reindeer as the basis of life," "longing for significant Sami values," "feeling valued as a Sami woman," and "changing for survival;" these evolved into the core category: "balancing within various discourses-the art of being old and living as a Sami woman." Knowing how to balance provided the ability to make use of available opportunities.

  • 3. Aléx, Lena
    et al.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Norberg, Astrid
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research. Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Lundman, Berit
    Construction of masculinities among men aged 85 and older in the north of Sweden.2008In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 451-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim was to analyse the construction of masculinities among men aged 85 and older. BACKGROUND: All societies have a gender order, constructed from multiple ideas of what is seen as feminine and masculine. As the group of men aged 85 and older is increasing in size and their demand for care will increase, we must recognize the importance of studying these men and various discourses of masculinities. DESIGN: Qualitative explorative. METHODS: Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse thematic narratives. Masculinity theories provided the point of departure for the analysis. RESULTS: The analysis coalesced into three masculinities. 'Being in the male centre', developed from subthemes as: taking pride in one's work and economic situation; being in the centre in relation to others; regarding women as sexual objects; and belonging to a select group. 'Striving to maintain the male facade' developed from subthemes as: emphasizing 'important' connections; having feelings of loss; striving to maintain old norms and rejecting the fact of being old. 'Being related' was formulated from subthemes as: feeling at home with domestic duties; being concerned; accepting one's own aging; and reflecting on life. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates the importance of being aware of the existence of multiple masculinities, in contrast to the generally unproblematic and unsubtle particular healthcare approaches which consider men as simply belonging to one masculinity. Relevance to clinical practice. Diverse masculinities probably affect encounters between men and healthcare providers and others who work with an older population and therefore our results are of importance in a caring context.

  • 4.
    Andershed, Birgitta
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Närståendes behov i palliativ vård2004In: Närståendes behov: Omvårdnad som akademiskt ämne III / [ed] Östlinder, Stockholm: Svensk sjuksköterskeförening , 2004Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Andershed, Birgitta
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Relatives in end-of-life care – part 1: a systematic review of the literature the five last years, January 1999–February 20042006In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 15, no 9, p. 1158-1169Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Andershed, Birgitta
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    The situation of relatives and their involvement in palliative care2003In: Australien-Asian Journal of Cancer, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 174-181Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Andershed, Birgitta
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Harstäde, Carina Werkander
    Next of kin's feelings of guilt and shame in end-of-life care.2007In: Contemporary nurse : a journal for the Australian nursing profession, ISSN 1037-6178, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 61-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the aim was to explore and describe next of kin's feelings of guilt and shame in end-of-life care via secondary analysis of 47 qualitative interviews. In the analysis categories and subcategories emerged which conveyed how the next of kin experienced guilt; not having done or talked enough, being absent at important events or making errors of judgement. Categories conveying feelings of shame were situations where the next of kin felt inferior, was ashamed on behalf of the dying person and when family conflicts became apparent. Receiving help and support in order to make the remaining period as pleasant as possible can facilitate the next of kin's sense of having fulfilled their duties and responsibilities and therein reduce feelings of guilt and shame. It is apparent that these feelings should be taken into account and the next of kin should receive support to increase their well-being during the remaining time in end-of-life care and the grieving period.

  • 8.
    Andershed, Birgitta
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Olsson, Kristina
    Review of research related to Kristen Swanson's middle-range theory of caring.2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 598-610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to identify and describe how Kristen Swanson's middle-range theory has been used in nursing practice/research presented in international journals. A total of 120 studies were included in the review and 23 were analysed further. An overview of the studies is presented, followed by four categories of how the theory has been used: referring to the theory (97 papers), applications of the theory to practice/research and/or theoretical discussions (nine papers), relating findings to and/or validation of the theory (eight papers), and development of measurements from and/or testing of the theory (six papers). The use of the theory and conclusions of the studies related to criteria for evaluation of theories were discussed.

  • 9.
    Andershed, Birgitta
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Ternestedt, Britt-Marie
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Development of a theoretical framework of understanding about relatives´ involvement in palliative care.2001In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 554-562Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Andersson, Gunnel
    et al.
    Johansson, Jan Erik
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    Sahlberg-Blom, Eva
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Perceptions of urinary incontinence among Syrian Christian women living in Sweden.2009In: Journal of Transcultural Nursing, ISSN 1043-6596, E-ISSN 1552-7832, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 296-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe the perception of urinary incontinence (UI) among Syrian women living in Sweden. DESIGN: A qualitative, descriptive design with focus group discussions (FGDs) was used and analyzed with content analysis. Fourteen Syrian women were interviewed in three FGDs. FINDINGS: Three categories emerged, "Thoughts on UI," "Managing UI," and "Communication With the Health Care System." Among the interviewees, UI was a common, and expected, problem, which could be managed. However, some expressed shame and embarrassment. Some talked about communication problems with health care. DISCUSSION: The health care system should be adjusted to the women's needs, with awareness of the communication difficulties, which could result in misunderstanding and neglected treatments.

  • 11. Andersson, Gunnel
    et al.
    Johansson, Jan-Erik
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    Sahlberg-Blom, Eva
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Accepting and adjusting: older women's experiences of living with urinary incontinence.2008In: Urologic nursing, ISSN 1053-816X, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 115-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe experiences of living with urinary incontinence (UI) among persons who do not desire further assessment and treatment. METHODS: This was a qualitative, descriptive interview study, and the method was phenomenological. Eleven women were interviewed; all had been in contact with a district nurse to obtain a prescription for sanitary protection. None of the women desired further treatment for UI. FINDINGS: The women described living with UI as a manageable problem with which they had learned to live. They showed strength and desire to manage on their own. In many cases, other health problems overshadowed leakage problems. Several women saw health care services as a barrier that needed to be overcome before help could be obtained. Three key constituents emerged in the analysis: "learning to live with it despite difficulties," "other illnesses are more important," and "reluctance to seek care." For these women, the essence of the phenomenon of living with urinary incontinence (UI) can described as "a situation to accept and adjust to."

  • 12. Angström-Brännström, Charlotte
    et al.
    Norberg, Astrid
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research. Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Jansson, Lilian
    Narratives of children with chronic illness about being comforted.2008In: Journal of Pediatric Nursing: Nursing Care of Children and Families, ISSN 0882-5963, E-ISSN 1532-8449, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 310-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine how children with chronic illnesses narrate their experience of being comforted in hospital. During interviews, seven children, 4-10 years old described their experiences and made drawings. Thematic content analysis revealed following themes: being physically close to one's family, feeling safe and secure, staff being there for the children, and children being there for parents and siblings. Mother was identified as the most important comforter. The findings suggest that trusting in the staff's knowledge and professional skills is a prerequisite for children to feel "at home", and safe in hospital. Being close to one's family is even more important.

  • 13.
    Benzein, Eva
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    I rörelse mot hopp - hälsostödjande familjesamtal i palliativ vård2008In: Omsorg: Nordisk tidsskrift for Palliativ Medisin, ISSN 0800-7489, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 19-22Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Benzein, Eva G
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Berg, Agneta C
    The level of and relation between hope, hopelessness and fatigue in patients and family members in palliative care.2005In: Palliative Medicine: A Multiprofessional Journal, ISSN 0269-2163, E-ISSN 1477-030X, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 234-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hope, hopelessness and fatigue are important experiences for patients and family members in palliative care. The aim of the study was to describe the level of and relation between hope, hopelessness and fatigue in patients and family members in palliative care. Eighty-five participants completed the Herth Hope Index, Beck's Hopelessness Scale and rated their level of fatigue from none to severe. The level of hope proved to be significantly lower among the family members than among the patients. For the family members, correlations were found between hope and age (-0.358*), fatigue and hope (-0.439*), hopelessness and age (0.484**), age and fatigue (0.403**) and between hope and hopelessness (-0.723**). For the patients, correlations were found between age and hopelessness (0.555**) and between hopelessness and hope (-0.580**). Efforts to increase the experience of hope and decrease hopelessness and fatigue must include not only the patient but also the family members. (* =P <0.5, ** =P <0.01)

  • 15.
    Benzein, Eva Gunilla
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Hagberg, Margaretha
    Saveman, Britt-Inger
    'Being appropriately unusual': a challenge for nurses in health-promoting conversations with families2008In: Nursing Inquiry, ISSN 1320-7881, E-ISSN 1440-1800, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 106-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes the theoretical assumptions and the application for health-promoting conversations, as a communication tool for nurses when talking to patients and their families. The conversations can be used on a promotional, preventive and healing level when working with family-focused nursing. They are based on a multiverse, salutogenetic, relational and reflecting approach, and acknowledge each person's experience as equally valid, and focus on families' resources, and the relationship between the family and its environment. By posing reflective questions, reflection is made possible for both the family and the nurses. Family members are invited to tell their story, and they can listen to and learn from each other. Nurses are challenged to build a co-creating partnership with families in order to acknowledge them as experts on how to lead their lives and to use their own expert knowledge in order to facilitate new meanings to surface. In this way, family health can be enhanced.

  • 16.
    Benzein, Eva Gunilla
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Saveman, Britt-Inger
    Health-promoting conversations about hope and suffering with couples in palliative care.2008In: International Journal of Palliative Nursing, ISSN 1357-6321, E-ISSN 2052-286X, Vol. 14, no 9, p. 439-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Families living with a dying relative face existential challenges which need to be met by caregivers in a dialogue. AIM: To describe couples' experiences of participating in nurse-initiated health-promoting conversations about hope and suffering during home-based palliative care. METHOD: Data comprised semi-structured evaluative interviews with six couples. Each couple together had previously participated in three health-fostering conversations with nurses. Data were analyzed by content. RESULT: Talking with nurses about existential issues such as hope and suffering made couples feel that they were part of a trustful relationship, and that it was a healing experience. It gave them the opportunity to unburden themselves, as well as a way of learning and finding new strategies for managing daily life. CONCLUSION: Health-promoting conversations about hope and suffering should be implemented as a natural part of the caring relationship between caregivers and families in the palliative context.

  • 17.
    Benzein, Eva
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Hagberg, M
    Saveman, B-I
    Familj och sociala relationer2009In: Omvårdnadens grunder: perspektiv och förhållningssätt / [ed] Febe Friberg och Joakim Öhlén, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2009, p. 67-88Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Benzein, Eva
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Johansson, Pauline
    Arestedt, Kristofer Franzén
    Berg, Agneta
    Saveman, Britt-Inger
    Families' Importance in Nursing Care: Nurses' Attitudes--an instrument development2008In: Journal of Family Nursing, ISSN 1074-8407, E-ISSN 1552-549X, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 97-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes the development and testing of a research instrument, Families' Importance in Nursing Care-Nurses' Attitudes (FINC-NA), designed to measure nurses' attitudes about the importance of involving families in nursing care. The instrument was inductively developed from a literature review and tested with a sample of Swedish nurses. An item-total correlation and a first principal component analysis were used to validate the final instrument, including a second principal component analysis to analyze dimensionality, and Cronbach's alpha was used to estimate internal consistency. The instrument consists of 26 items and reveals four factors: families as a resource in nursing care, family as a conversational partner, family as a burden, and family as its own resource. Cronbach's alpha was 0.88 for the total instrument and 0.69 to 0.80 for the subscales. The instrument requires further testing with other nurse populations.

  • 19.
    Benzein, Eva
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Johansson, Pauline
    Arestedt, Kristofer Franzén
    Saveman, Britt-Inger
    Nurses' attitudes about the importance of families in nursing care: a survey of Swedish nurses2008In: Journal of Family Nursing, ISSN 1074-8407, E-ISSN 1552-549X, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 162-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of registered nurses (RNs) about the importance of involving families in nursing care. A sample of 634 randomly selected Swedish RNs completed the instrument, Families' Importance in Nursing Care-Nurses' Attitudes (FINC-NA), and reported holding supportive attitudes about families. High scores were found for the subscales: family as a resource in nursing care, family as a conversational partner, family as a burden, and family as its own resource. Variables that predicted a less supportive attitude about involving families in nursing care included being a newly graduated nurse, having no general approach to the care of families at the place of work, and being a male nurse.

  • 20.
    Benzein, Eva
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Saveman, Britt-Inger
    2nd Nordic Family Nursing Conference in Kalmar, Sweden: A brief report.2006In: Journal of Family Nursing, ISSN 1074-8407, E-ISSN 1552-549X, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 344-5Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Bergdahl, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Wikström, Britt-Maj
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Andershed, Birgitta
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Esthetic abilities: a way to describe abilities of expert nurses in palliative home care.2007In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 752-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of this paper is to focus on the abilities needed to create the caring relation in palliative home care and to find ways to describe these abilities and skills from an esthetic perspective. BACKGROUND: Nurses in Palliative home care have to create a functioning relationship between themselves the patient and the patient's next of kin, this puts special demands on the nurse. A number of abilities, such as creativity, intuition, empathy and self-knowledge are mentioned in literature related to the caring relation. Many nursing theorists have referred to the art and esthetic of nursing when trying to describe these abilities. METHODS: Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with eight expert nurses in palliative home care. The transcribed interviews were analysed using qualitative content analyses. FINDINGS: Three main categories where found: The will to do good, Knowledge and Perceptiveness. Subcategories that can be seen as abilities where found in the main categories knowledge and perceptiveness. CONCLUSIONS: The main categories can be seen as expressions for abilities, personal qualities and skills needed to create the caring relation in palliative home care. We found interesting connections between the three main categories and the concepts of esthetics, ethics and science. We also found that nurses develop in a way, i.e. similar to an artist. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The concepts brought forward in this paper could be used in clinical supervision and education as well as in clinical practice. If nurses think about the three aspects: Knowledge, the will to do good and perceptiveness, the chance for a positive relation between the nurse and the patient, and the patient's next of kin might increase. One could speculate that perceptiveness is a vital ability in order to achieve the expert level of nursing and that this perspective should be taken in consideration when recruiting nurses and in curriculum development.

  • 22. Blomberg, Karin
    et al.
    Sahlberg-Blom, Eva
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Closeness and distance: a way of handling difficult situations in daily care.2007In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 244-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe how care team members caring for patients with advanced cancer describe how they handle difficult situations in daily care. In this paper 'difficult situations' refers to those situations team members themselves describe as difficult. BACKGROUND: Serious illness and impending death involve great changes in a person's life. The care of patients with advanced cancer is complex and many different factors influence each care situation. This places demands on the way care team members handle problems and difficulties in daily care. DESIGN: Qualitative descriptive study. METHODS: The study is based on 16 focus group discussions with care team members who were caring for patients with advanced cancer at three different care units in two Swedish cities. The focus group discussions included 77 participants. The procedure for data analysis was inspired by the phenomenological method. FINDINGS: The results show that care team members handled difficult situations by balancing between being close and distancing themselves. In most situations their choice of strategy seemed spontaneous rather than being a conscious decision, although it was sometimes described as a more conscious approach. Variations of closeness and distance that were identified were Identity, Meaning, Limit-setting and touching, Prioritization, the Team and the Organization. These could also be seen as tools that could facilitate or impede the use of closeness and distance. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that care team members have a need to reflect over daily care and to become aware of what governs different care actions. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: If the experienced difficult situation is not handled in a way that is beneficial to the care team member, patient and relatives, it is assumed that this can result in stress, burnout and, above all, non-optimal care.

  • 23. Brännström, Margareta
    et al.
    Brulin, Christine
    Norberg, Astrid
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research. Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Boman, Kurt
    Strandberg, Gunilla
    Being a palliative nurse for persons with severe congestive heart failure in advanced homecare.2005In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 314-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced homecare for persons with congestive heart failure is a 'new' challenge for palliative nurses. The aim of this study is to illuminate the meaning of being a palliative nurse for persons with severe congestive heart failure in advanced homecare. Narrative interviews with 11 nurses were conducted, tape-recorded, and transcribed verbatim. A phenomenological-hermeneutic method was used to interpret the text. One meaning of being a palliative nurse is being firmly rooted and guided by the values of palliative culture. Being adaptable to the patient's way of life carries great weight. On one hand nurses live out this value, facilitating for the patients to live their everyday life as good as possible. Being a facilitator is revealed as difficult, challenging, but overall positive. On the other hand nurses get into a tight corner when values of palliative culture clash and do not correspond with the nurses interpretation of what is good for the person with congestive heart failure. Being in such a tight corner is revealed as frustrating and giving rise to feelings of inadequacy. Thus, it seems important to reflect critical on the values of palliative culture.

  • 24. Brännström, Margareta
    et al.
    Ekman, Inger
    Norberg, Astrid
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research. Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Boman, Kurt
    Strandberg, Gunilla
    Living with severe chronic heart failure in palliative advanced home care.2006In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 295-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Living with severe chronic heart failure (CHF) in palliative care has been little studied. AIM: The aim of this study is to illuminate meaning of living with severe CHF in palliative advanced home care through patients' narratives. METHODS: Narrative interviews were conducted with 4 patients, tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. A phenomenological-hermeneutic method was used to interpret the text. RESULTS: Meaning of living with severe CHF in palliative advanced home care emerged as 'knocking on death's door' although surviving. The course of the illness forces one to live a 'roller coaster life,' with an ongoing oscillation between ups and downs. Making it through the downs breeds a kind of confidence in one's ability to survive and the will to live is strong. Being offered a safety belt in the 'roller coaster' by the palliative advanced home care team evokes feelings of security. CONCLUSIONS: Meaning of living with severe CHF in palliative advanced home care is on one hand, being aware of one's imminent death, on the other hand, making it through the downs i.e. surviving life-threatening conditions, breed confidence in also surviving the current down. Being constructively dependent on palliative advanced home care facilitates everyday life at home.

  • 25. Dahlqvist, Vera
    et al.
    Eriksson, Sture
    Glasberg, Ann-Louise
    Lindahl, Elisabeth
    Lützén, Kim
    Strandberg, Gunilla
    Söderberg, Anna
    Sørlie, Venke
    Norberg, Astrid
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research. Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Development of the perceptions of conscience questionnaire.2007In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 181-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Health care often involves ethically difficult situations that may disquiet the conscience. The purpose of this study was to develop a questionnaire for identifying various perceptions of conscience within a framework based on the literature and on explorative interviews about perceptions of conscience (Perceptions of Conscience Questionnaire). The questionnaire was tested on a sample of 444 registered nurses, enrolled nurses, nurses' assistants and physicians. The data were analysed using principal component analysis to explore possible dimensions of perceptions of conscience. The results showed six dimensions, found also in theory and empirical health care studies. Conscience was perceived as authority, a warning signal, demanding sensitivity, an asset, a burden and depending on culture. We conclude that the Perceptions of Conscience Questionnaire is valid for assessing some perceptions of conscience relevant to health care providers.

  • 26. Dahlqvist, Vera
    et al.
    Söderberg, Anna
    Norberg, Astrid
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research. Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Dealing with stress: patterns of self-comfort among healthcare students.2008In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 476-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress among healthcare students is a growing problem. As self-comfort is assumed to be a way of coping with stressful emotions, the aim of this study was to describe the patterns of self-comforting actions that healthcare students usually use in distress. One hundred and sixty-eight healthcare students volunteered to write down accounts of what they do when they comfort themselves. Their accounts were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The findings reveal two themes: Ingressing and Transcending. Ingressing comprises the sub-themes Unloading, Distracting, Nurturing oneself, Withdrawing and Reassuring. Transcending comprises the sub-themes Opening up and Finding new perspectives. These findings are in line with some stress-reducing strategies described in the literature on stress management. Winnicott's theory about the phenomenon of transition is used to interpret the findings. In the light of Winnicott's theory, self-comforting measures can be comprehended as the ability to transfer early childhood experiences of being nurtured and comforted into well-adapted strategies to effect relaxation and gain strength.

  • 27. Dahlqvist, Vera
    et al.
    Söderberg, Anna
    Norberg, Astrid
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research. Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Facing inadequacy and being good enough: psychiatric care providers' narratives about experiencing and coping with troubled conscience.2009In: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1351-0126, E-ISSN 1365-2850, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 242-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to illuminate the meaning of encounters with a troubled conscience among psychiatric therapists. Psychiatric care involves ethical dilemmas which may affect conscience. Conscience relates to keeping or losing a sense of personal integrity when making judgments about one's actions. Ten psychiatric therapists were interviewed in June 2006. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim and interpreted using a phenomenological-hermeneutic method. Two themes 'Facing inadequacy' and 'Struggling to view oneself as being 'good enough'' are presented. In the therapists interviewed, awareness of their use of power, a sense of powerlessness and a sense of blame gave rise to feelings of betrayals and shameful inadequacy. By sharing their inadequacy with co-workers, they managed to endure the sense of their inadequacy which otherwise would have threatened to paralyse them. Finding consolation in sharing wearing feelings, becoming realistic and attesting their worthiness, they reached reconciliation and found confirmation of being good enough. The findings are interpreted in light of Lögstrup's ethics of trust, according to which conscience alerts us to silent but radical ethical demand and the risk of self-deception.

  • 28.
    Dwyer, Lise-Lotte
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Dignity in the end of life care: what does it mean to older people and staff in nursing homes?2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     

    The discussion of a palliative care and a dignified death has almost exclusively been applied to people dying of cancer. As people are getting older and are living longer, nursing homes have become an important place for end-of-life care and death. Dignity is a concept often used in health care documents but their meaning is rarely clarified.

    The main aim of this thesis was to gain a deeper understanding of what dignity meant to older people in end of life care as well as to nursing home staff. The thesis comprises four studies. The first and second study involved older people living in nursing home settings studied from a hermeneutic perspective. In the first study twelve older people in two nursing homes were interviewed two to four times over a period of 18–24 months during 2002–2003. Altogether, 39 interviews were analyzed by a hermeneutic method. Dignity was closely linked to self-image and identity. The themes of unrecognizable body, dependence and fragility constituted threats to dignity. The third theme, inner strength and sense of coherence, seemed to assist the older people in maintaining dignity of identity. In the second study the aim was to acquire a deeper understanding of how three older women from study I, created meaning in everyday life at the nursing home. A secondary analysis was carried out and showed meaning in everyday life was created by an inner dialogue, communication and relationships with others. The third study was to explore nursing home staff members’ experience of what dignity in end-of –life care means to older people and to themselves.

    Totally 21 interviews with staff were carried out and analyzed through a qualitative content analysis. The meaning of older people’s dignity was conceptualized as feeling trust, which implied being shown respect. Staff members’ dignity was conceptualized as maintaining self-respect. Dignity was threatened in situations where staff experienced themselves and the older people as being ignored and thereby marginalized. The fourth study was carried out through focus groups discussions with 20 staff members about seven older peoples dying death and care. The analyses showed that conversations and discussions about death were rare. Death was surrounded by silence. It was disclosed that the older dying person’s thoughts and attitudes of death were not explicitly known. A dignified death meant alleviation of bodily suffering and pain and meaningfulness. The staff’s ethical reasoning mainly concerned their experience of a gap between their personal ideals of what a dignified end of life should include and what they were able to provide in reality, which could result in conscious stress. Staff members need training and support. End of life care demands competence and teamwork.

    A challenge for future care of older people would be to develop a nursing home environment in which human dignity is promoted.

  • 29.
    Dwyer, Lise-Lotte
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research. Örebro universitet.
    Andershed, Birgitta
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Ternestedt, Britt-Marie
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Dignity as experienced by nursing home staff2009In: International Journal of Older People Nursing, ISSN 1748-3735, E-ISSN 1748-3743, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 185-193Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Dwyer, Lise-Lotte
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Andershed, Birgitta
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Ternestedt, Britt-Marie
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Nursing home staff's reasoning about death and dyingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Dwyer, Lise-Lotte
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research. Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences. Örebro universitet.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet.
    Ternestedt, Britt-Marie
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Three nursing home residents speak about meaning at the end of life2008In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 97-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides a deeper understanding of how meaning can be created in everyday life at a nursing home. It is based on a primary study concerning dignity involving 12 older people living in two nursing homes in Sweden. A secondary analysis was carried out on data obtained from three of the primary participants interviewed over a period of time (18-24 months), with a total of 12 interviews carried out using an inductive hermeneutic approach. The study reveals that sources of meaning were created by having a sense of: physical capability, cognitive capability, being needed, and belonging. Meaning was created through inner dialogue, communication and relationships with others. A second finding is that the experience of meaning can sometimes be hard to realize.

  • 32. Eggers, Thomas
    et al.
    Norberg, Astrid
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research. Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Ekman, Sirkka-Liisa
    Counteracting fragmentation in the care of people with moderate and severe dementia.2005In: Clinical Nursing Research, ISSN 1054-7738, E-ISSN 1552-3799, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 343-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Symptoms such as amnesia, agnosia, apraxia, and aphasia may lead to a fragmented experience and actions among people with moderate and severe dementia. The aim of this study was to explore the interactions where fragmentation occurred and how caregivers counteract fragmentation. The observation notes from participant observations were analyzed using interpretive content analysis. Fragmentation was noted if the patients showed that they did not recognize what was going on, the people involved, the things used in the action, or did not recognize themselves in the situation. Care providers could counteract fragmentation by a caring based on attentive interest in the interaction, valuing the person behind the dementia disease, using an individual perspective considering the impact of the dementia disease, and striving for mutual interpretation of the shared situation. Caring based on these assumptions could help the patients to keep their world together.

  • 33.
    Elmberger, Eva
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Bolund, Christina
    Magnusson, Annabella
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Lützén, Kim
    Andershed, Birgitta
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Being a Mother With Cancer: achieving a Sense of Balance in the Transition Process2008In: Cancer Nursing, ISSN 0162-220X, E-ISSN 1538-9804, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 58-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For women with cancer and with children living at home, the demands of being a good mother while undergoing treatments and recovering from illness have been described as a difficult life process. The aim of this study was to further examine the transition process with focus on women's experience of their responsibility toward their children. Interviews from 2 previous studies investigating the transition process of women with cancer were gathered and were subjected to a qualitative secondary analysis, an analytic expansion of the transition process. The 3 phases in the transition process were used in an interpretive description: ending an earlier life situation, in-between, and new beginning. A main theme that integrated these phases was constructed: "the desire to manage ones responsibility as a parent," within the context of mothering. The women expressed moral concern about not being able to function as "good" mothers yet attempted to find a balance between experiences of exhaustion and other experiences that made it difficult to maintain their responsibility as parents. All of the women included in this study expressed the need for professional support to help them endure treatment procedures as well as to sustain their moral responsibility as good mothers.

  • 34. Ericson-Lidman, Eva
    et al.
    Norberg, Astrid
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research. Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Strandberg, Gunilla
    Meanings of being a female co-worker to a person developing burnout.2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 155-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Burnout is dramatically increasing in many industrialised countries. Burnout is mainly studied from the perspective of the burnout person although it has been confirmed to affect co-workers as well. This study aimed to illuminate meanings of being a female co-worker to a person developing burnout. Fifteen interviews with nursing and medical staff were performed, tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim and a phenomenological-hermeneutic method was used to interpret the text. One meaning of being a female co-worker is struggling, on the one hand to understand and help the person developing burnout and on the other hand to manage their work and survive oneself. This means to be torn between helping the workmate and managing their work. Co-workers are filled with contradictory feelings, from deep concern to aversion and when the workmate finally goes on sick leave, co-workers' feelings of shortcomings and failure emerge, along with troubled conscience. This study reveals a picture of the difficulties of being a female co-worker to a person developing burnout that it is crucial to be aware of.

  • 35. Eriksson, Monika
    et al.
    Andershed, Birgitta
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Care dependence: a struggle toward moments of respite2008In: Clinical Nursing Research, ISSN 1054-7738, E-ISSN 1552-3799, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 220-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to describe people's experiences of being dependent on others for care in their final stage of life, as well as what they felt made their experience of being dependent easier or more difficult. The phenomenological-hermeneutical method was chosen, where data collection consisted of open-ended interviews with nine people undergoing palliative care at a hospice unit or at home. The meaning of being care dependent is described via the following themes: changed relationship with oneself and with others, striving to adapt oneself to the situation, obstacles, and opportunities along the way while dependent. The result is described as an effort, a journey from independence to moments where it was possible to rest and recuperate while struggling with care dependency. Nursing staff require knowledge and understanding of experiences with care dependency to make life easier for people during increasing dependency in the final stage of life.

  • 36.
    Ewertzon, Mats
    et al.
    Örebro universitet. ; Högskolan Dalarna.
    Lützén, Kim
    Svensson, Elisabeth
    Andershed, Birgitta
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Developing the concept of family involvement and the alienation questionnaire in the context of psychiatric care2008In: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1445-8330, E-ISSN 1447-0349, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 439-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research shows that family members of people with a mental illness often experience a lack of involvement in the psychiatric care of their relative. An interpretation of the findings of these studies raises the question of whether the family members' experience of not being involved can be conceptualized in terms of alienation towards mental health services from their encounter with psychiatric care. In order to explore this possibility, the Family Involvement and Alienation Questionnaire (FIAQ) was constructed, guided by relevant theoretical frameworks and empirical research. The content validity of the questionnaire was evaluated by two groups of experienced researchers who had sound knowledge of the theoretical frameworks used. Validity based on the response process was evaluated by the parents of people with mental illness. The reliability of the questionnaire was evaluated by a test-retest design with a group of 15 family members. The data were analyzed by a non-parametric statistical method. The results of the validity and reliability evaluations showed that of the 46 original items in the questionnaire, 28 would be useful in exploring the concept of family involvement and alienation in the context of psychiatric care. Further, minor modifications could make the FIAQ useful in exploring these concepts in other settings.

  • 37.
    Fagerberg, Ingegerd
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Norberg, Astrid
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research. Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    “Learning by doing”: Or how to reach an understanding of the research method phenomenological hermeneutics2009In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 29, no 7, p. 735-739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One problem addressed in teaching graduate students qualitative research methods is practising the cognitive and conative skills that students need to generate both rich data and meaningful analysis.

    The aim of the study was to illuminate development in a group of pre-doctoral and doctoral students as they learnt the phenomenological hermeneutics research method.

    In a course comprising 18 doctoral students we used the “guided path” pedagogical approach and decided to use a subject of which everyone has lived experience, “troubled conscience”, for the phenomenological hermeneutic analysis conducted with the students. As the students progressed in their learning experience of the research method, they analysed their data according to the steps in the method, and we as teachers conducted separate analyses of the same data.

    The results point in the same direction as previous studies in the field. This is discussed in terms of strength of the pedagogical approach and the students’ learning, since despite the fact that their data are limited and not very detailed they were able to come up with results that were in line with previous research.

  • 38. Fischer, Regina Santamäki
    et al.
    Norberg, Astrid
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research. Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Lundman, Berit
    Embracing opposites: meanings of growing old as narrated by people aged 852008In: The International Journal of Aging & Human Development, ISSN 0091-4150, E-ISSN 1541-3535, Vol. 67, no 3, p. 259-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many old people suffer from prolonged and multiple bodily ailments, new diseases, and increased risk for disadvantages and losses in life. Aging also means becoming mature and wise. This study illuminates the meaning of the lived experience with respect to changes in late life. Using a phenomenological hermeneutic method, this study analyzes transcribed interviews of 15 85-year-old people. Four themes were formulated: embracing weakness and strength, embracing slowness and swiftness of time, embracing reconciliation and regret, and embracing connectedness and loneliness. From these analyses, growing old was described as--maintaining one's identity in spite of the changes that come with aging and, embracing opposites--being changed and feeling being the same.

  • 39. Fischer, Regina Santamäki
    et al.
    Nygren, Björn
    Lundman, Berit
    Norberg, Astrid
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research. Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Living Amidst Consolation in the Presence of God Perceptions of Consolation Among the Oldest Old: The Umeå 85+ Study.2007In: Journal of Religion, Spirituality & Aging, ISSN 1552-8030, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 3-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes how 90-year-olds and older people perceive consolation. Qualitative Content analysis of 49 interviews revealed four categories: consolation by God; consolation from others; consolation from self; and consolation from things, which were present in two themes. The theme "Living amidst consolation in the presence of God" was a core theme and expresses consolation as self-evident and based on a relation to God, others, self, and things. The theme "Seeking consolation," expresses consolation from self, others, things, or God. Interviewees in some cases regretted that they had no religious faith. Reasonably, most interviewees referred to religious consolation, as religion had been so closely connected with the word "consolation" all their lives. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

  • 40. Fjelltun, Aud-Mari Sohini
    et al.
    Henriksen, Nils
    Norberg, Astrid
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research. Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Gilje, Fredricka
    Normann, Hans Ketil
    Nurses' and carers' appraisals of workload in care of frail elderly awaiting nursing home placement.2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 57-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of this study is to describe carers' and nurses' appraisals of workload in care of frail elderly awaiting nursing home (NH) placement. BACKGROUND: Carers' workload of care for frail elderly awaiting NH placement has been studied separately from that of nurses' workload. The literature neither addressed a comparison of carers' and nurses' appraisals of psychological and physical workloads nor the most strenuous factors common to the workloads of both nurses and carers in care of the same elderly person. The terms 'carers' and 'nurses' in this paper refer to informal caregivers and to both enrolled nurses and Registered Nurses respectively, when no particular one is stated. METHOD: The sample comprised 11 nurses and 11 carers paired based on care provided to the same elderly person awaiting NH placement in Norway. Data collected by a workload-scale was analyzed by descriptive statistics. Data collected by individual interviews were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. Carers' and nurses' appraisals of workload were compared and contrasted and most strenuous factors described. FINDINGS: The findings show that both carers and nurses rated workload levels maximum. Carers' highest ratings concerned psychological workload, while nurses' highest ratings concerned physical workload. The workload ratings concerning elderly with advanced dementia disease were most similarly aligned. Qualitative content analysis showed three categories that describe the most strenuous factors common to the workloads of both carers and nurses. These were feeling responsible, burdened and ambivalent. CONCLUSION: This study reports carers' and nurses' appraisals of workload in care of frail elderly awaiting NH placement. The results show many similarities and some differences. These results may help guide policy development to address resource allocations to elderly care. Further research is needed to address workloads of care for elderly awaiting NH placement.

  • 41. Gilje, F
    et al.
    Talseth, A G
    Norberg, Astrid
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research. Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Psychiatric nurses' response to suicidal psychiatric inpatients: struggling with self and sufferer.2005In: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1351-0126, E-ISSN 1365-2850, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 519-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on nurses' responses to suicidal patients is sparse. The purpose of this secondary analysis of qualitative data from interviews with 19 nurses employed in Norway was to describe nurses' responses to suicidal psychiatric inpatients. Thematic analyses revealed four themes: 'struggling with discernment of self and sufferer'; 'reconciling inner dialogue'; 'opening up while envisioning self from sufferer'; and 'revisioning the meaning of life revealed over time'. The main theme was 'struggling with self and sufferer'. While these findings reveal existential issues and self reflections of psychiatric nurses' struggle with the suffering of suicidal patients, they also contribute to a methodological debate. Further research is needed to examine nurses' responses to suicidal patients in various settings and to develop secondary analysis of qualitative data.

  • 42. Glasberg, A L
    et al.
    Eriksson, S
    Norberg, A
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research. Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Burnout and 'stress of conscience' among healthcare personnel.2007In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 392-403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: This paper reports a study examining factors that may contribute to burnout among healthcare personnel. BACKGROUND: The impact on burnout of factors such as workload and interpersonal conflicts is well-documented. However, although health care is a moral endeavour, little is known about the impact of moral strain. Interviews reveal that healthcare personnel experience a troubled conscience when they feel that they cannot provide the good care that they wish - and believe it is their duty - to give. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, conducted in 2003, a sample of 423 healthcare personnel in Sweden completed a battery of questionnaires comprising the Maslach Burnout Inventory, Perception of Conscience Questionnaire, Stress of Conscience Questionnaire, Social Interactions Scale, Resilience Scale and a personal/work demographic form. RESULTS: Regression analysis resulted in a model that explained approximately 59% of the total variation in emotional exhaustion. Factors associated with emotional exhaustion were 'having to deaden one's conscience', and 'stress of conscience' from lacking the time to provide the care needed, work being so demanding that it influences one's home life, and not being able to live up to others' expectations. Several additional variables were associated with emotional exhaustion. Factors contributing to depersonalization were 'having to deaden one's conscience', 'stress of conscience' from not being able to live up to others' expectations and from having to lower one's aspirations to provide good care, deficient social support from co-workers, and being a physician; however, the percentage of variation explained was smaller (30%). CONCLUSION: Being attentive to our own and others' feelings of troubled conscience is important in preventing burnout in health care, and staff need opportunities to reflect on their troubled conscience. Further research is needed into how a troubled conscience can be eased, particularly focusing on the working environment.

  • 43. Glasberg, Ann-Louise
    et al.
    Eriksson, Sture
    Dahlqvist, Vera
    Lindahl, Elisabeth
    Strandberg, Gunilla
    Söderberg, Anna
    Sørlie, Venke
    Norberg, Astrid
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research. Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Development and initial validation of the Stress of Conscience Questionnaire.2006In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 633-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress in health care is affected by moral factors. When people are prevented from doing 'good' they may feel that they have not done what they ought to or that they have erred, thus giving rise to a troubled conscience. Empirical studies show that health care personnel sometimes refer to conscience when talking about being in ethically difficult everyday care situations. This study aimed to construct and validate the Stress of Conscience Questionnaire (SCQ), a nine-item instrument for assessing stressful situations and the degree to which they trouble the conscience. The items were based on situations previously documented as causing negative stress for health care workers. Content and face validity were established by expert panels and pilot studies that selected relevant items and modified or excluded ambiguous ones. A convenience sample of 444 health care personnel indicated that the SCQ had acceptable validity and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha exceeded 0.83 for the overall scale). Explorative factor analysis identified and labelled two factors: 'internal demands' and 'external demands and restrictions'. The findings suggest that the SCQ is a concise and practical instrument for use in various health care contexts.

  • 44. Glasberg, Ann-Louise
    et al.
    Eriksson, Sture
    Norberg, Astrid
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research. Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Factors associated with 'stress of conscience' in healthcare.2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 249-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The main purpose of this study was to examine factors related to 'stress of conscience' i.e. stress related to a troubled conscience in healthcare. METHODS: A series of questionnaires was completed by 423 healthcare employees in northern Sweden as part of this cross-sectional study. The series of questionnaires comprised the 'Stress of Conscience Questionnaire', 'Perception of Conscience Questionnaire', 'Revised Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire', Social Interactions Scale, Resilience Scale and a Personal/Work Demographic form. RESULTS: Nonautomatic stepwise regression analysis with forward inclusion resulted in a model that explained approximately 39.6% of the total variation in stress of conscience. Individual items associated with stress of conscience were; perceiving that conscience warns us against hurting others while at the same time not being able to follow one's conscience at work and having to deaden one's conscience to keep working in healthcare. In addition moral sensitivity items belonging to the factor 'sense of moral burden' were; one's ability to sense patient's needs means that one is doing more than one has strength for, having difficulty to deal with feelings aroused when a patient is suffering and one's ability to sense patient's needs means feeling inadequate all added significantly to the model. In addition, deficient social support from superiors, low levels of resilience and working in internal medicine wards were all associated with stress of conscience. CONCLUSION: Healthcare employees seem to experience stress of conscience in their everyday practise. Particular contributing factors are not being able to follow one's conscience at work, and the 'negative' dimension of moral sensitivity - moral burden - which is an inability to deal with moral problems. Thus, in order for conscience and moral sensitivity to become an asset instead of a burden, healthcare employees need to be able to express their moral concerns.

  • 45. Glasberg, Ann-Louise
    et al.
    Norberg, Astrid
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research. Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Söderberg, Anna
    Sources of burnout among healthcare employees as perceived by managers.2007In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 10-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: This paper is a report of a study to investigate healthcare managers' perspectives on factors contributing to the increase of healthcare employees on sick leave for burnout symptoms. BACKGROUND: Current turbulent healthcare reorganization has resulted in structural instability, role conflicts and vague responsibility commitments, all of which contribute to increasing numbers of sick days caused by burnout symptoms. Managers' perceptions of burnout sources are important as these perceptions guide the actions taken to prevent burnout. METHOD: Interviews were carried out with 30 healthcare managers, with different occupational backgrounds and from different units. The data were collected in Sweden in 2003 and analysed using thematic qualitative content analysis. FINDINGS: According to the healthcare managers, continuous reorganization and downsizing of healthcare services has reduced resources and increased demands and responsibilities. These problems are compounded by high ideals and expectations, making staff question their own abilities and worth as well as making them feel less confirmed and less valued as people. The main finding indicates that healthcare employees are thrown into a spiralling sense of inadequacy and an emerging sense of pessimism and powerlessness. CONCLUSION: To understand and influence people's actions, one has to understand their perceptions and thoughts - their explanatory models. This study shows the complexity and interconnection between sources of burnout as perceived by healthcare managers, and highlights the encouragement of realism without the destruction of enthusiasm as an important factor in management and healthcare practice.

  • 46. Gustafsson, Gabriella
    et al.
    Norberg, Astrid
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research. Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Strandberg, Gunilla
    Meanings of becoming and being burnout--phenomenological-hermeneutic interpretation of female healthcare personnel's narratives.2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 520-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The incidence of burnout has increased in many industrialized countries. Burnout is mainly studied among people still at work and with quantitative methods. The present study aimed to illuminate the meanings of becoming and being burnout as narrated by healthcare personnel on sick leave because of symptoms of burnout. Interviews with 20 female healthcare personnel were performed, tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim and a phenomenological-hermeneutic method was used to interpret the text. The result shows that the meanings of becoming and being burnout are to be torn between what one wants to be and what one manages. It is as one's ideals have become more like demands and no matter the circumstances, one must be and show oneself as being capable and independent. It is also to be dissatisfied with oneself for not living up to one's ideals as well as disappointed with other people for not giving the confirmation one strives for. Feelings of being a victim of circumstances emerge. Thus, becoming and being burnout is leading a futile struggle to live up to one's ideal, failing to unite one's ideal picture with one's reality and experiencing an overwhelming feebleness. This is interpreted in the light of Buber's philosophy as well as relevant empirical studies about burnout. One conclusion is that it seems important to reflect on as well as discuss between one another about our everyday reality; what are reasonable vs. unreasonable demands. Hopefully, such reflections will increase our tolerance of ourselves and others and our insightfulness of what is possible to achieve in work as well as in private life. This study is ethically approved.

  • 47.
    Hellström, Ingrid
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Dignity and elderly spouses with dementia2009In: Dignity in care for older people / [ed] Lennart Nordenfelt, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell , 2009, p. 99-116Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Hellström, Ingrid
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Värdighet och äldre makar med demens2010In: Värdighet i vården av äldre personer / [ed] Lennart Nordenfelt, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2010, 1, p. 169-196Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Hellström, Ingrid
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Lundh, Ulla
    Livet med demenssjukdom på äldre dagar2007In: Hemmets vårdetik: om vård av äldre i livets slutskede / [ed] Gunilla Silfverberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2007, 1, p. 91-107Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Hellström, Ingrid
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Nolan, M
    Time together2009In: Time for Dementia / [ed] Jane Gilliard and Mary Marshall, London: Hawker Publications , 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf