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  • 1.
    Alvariza, Anette
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC.
    Lövgren, Malin
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC.
    Bylund-Grenklo, Tove
    Karolinska institutet.
    Hakola, Pia
    Stockholms Sjukhem.
    Fürst, Carl Johan
    Lunds universitet, Region Skåne.
    Kreicbergs, Ulrika
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC.
    How to support teenagers who are losing a parent to cancer: Bereaved young adults' advice to healthcare professionals-A nationwide survey.2016In: Palliative & Supportive Care, ISSN 1478-9515, E-ISSN 1478-9523, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 313-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The loss of a parent to cancer is considered one of the most traumatic events a teenager can experience. Studies have shown that teenagers, from the time of diagnosis, are already extremely worried about the consequences of a parent's cancer but tend to be left to manage these concerns on their own. The present study aimed to explore young adults' advice to healthcare professionals on how to support teenagers who are losing a parent to cancer.

    METHODS: This work derives from a Swedish nationwide survey and employs a qualitative approach with a descriptive/interpretive design to obtain answers to an open-ended question concerning advice to healthcare professionals. Of the 851 eligible young adults who had lost a parent to cancer when they were 13-16 years of age within the previous 6 to 9 years, 622 participated in our survey (response rate = 73%). Of these 622 young adults, 481 responded to the open-ended question about what advice to give healthcare professionals.

    RESULTS: Four themes emerged: (1) to be seen and acknowledged; (2) to understand and prepare for illness, treatment, and the impending death; (3) to spend time with the ill parent, and (4) to receive support tailored to the individual teenager's needs.

    SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: This nationwide study contributes hands-on suggestions to healthcare staff regarding attitudes, communication, and support from the perspective of young adults who, in their teenage years, lost a parent to cancer. Teenagers may feel better supported during a parent's illness if healthcare professionals take this manageable advice forward into practice and see each teenager as individuals; explain the disease, its treatments, and consequences; encourage teenagers to spend time with their ill parent; and recommend sources of support.

  • 2.
    Andershed, Birgitta
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Gjövik, Norway.
    Ewertzon, Mats
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Johansson, Anita
    Skaraborgs sjukhus.
    An isolated involvement in mental health care: Experiences of parents of young adults.2017In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 26, no 7-8, p. 1053-1065Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of this study was to explore parents' involvement in the informal and professional care of their young adult child with mental illness. A further aim was to examine concepts in the caring theory of "Involvement in the light - involvement in the dark" in the context of mental health care.

    BACKGROUND: Mental illness has increased among young people in high-income countries and suicide is now the leading cause of death for this group. Because of their disease, these young people may have difficulty in carrying out daily, taken-for-granted, tasks. Consequently, they often become dependent on their parents, and their parents shoulder a considerable responsibility.

    DESIGN AND METHODS: A secondary descriptive design with a deductive content analysis was used. Ten parents who have a son or daughter with long-term mental illness (aged 18 - 25) were interviewed. The deductive analysis was based on the caring theory of "Involvement in the light - Involvement in the dark".

    RESULTS: The results are described using the following concepts in the theory: "Knowing", "Doing", "Being" and "Attitude of the health professionals". The result are to a great extent consistent with the "Involvement in the dark" metaphor, which describes an isolated involvement in which the parents were not informed, seen or acknowledged by the health professionals. Continuous support by professionals with a positive attitude was described as being of decisive importance for meaningful involvement. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Bylund-Grenklo, Tove
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Linnéuniversitetet.
    Fürst, C J
    Lunds universitet.
    Nyberg, T
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Steineck, G
    Karolinska Institutet, Göteborgs universitet.
    Kreicbergs, Ulrika
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Karolinska Institutet.
    Unresolved grief and its consequences: A nationwide follow-up of teenage loss of a parent to cancer 6-9 years earlier.2016In: Supportive Care in Cancer, ISSN 0941-4355, E-ISSN 1433-7339, Vol. 24, no 7, p. 3095-3103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The early loss of a parent is a tragedy and a serious life event. This study investigated grief resolution and morbidity in cancer-bereaved teenagers 6 to 9 years after the loss of a parent to cancer.

    METHODS: In a nationwide population-based study of 622 of 851 (73 %) youths who as teenagers 6 to 9 years earlier had lost a parent to cancer, we explored the magnitude of unresolved grief and its association with psychological and physiological morbidity. Participants answered a study-specific anonymous questionnaire including questions about if they had worked through their grief and about their current health.

    RESULTS: Six to nine years post-loss 49 % reported unresolved grief (8 % no and 41 % a little grief resolution). They had, in comparison with youths reporting resolved grief, statistically significantly elevated risks, e.g. for insomnia (sons' relative risk (RR) 2.3, 95 % CI 1.3-4.0; daughters' RR 1.7, 95 % CI 1.1-2.7), fatigue (sons' RR 1.8, 95 % CI 1.3-2.5; daughters' RR 1.4, 95 % CI 1.1-1.7) and moderate to severe depression, i.e. score >9, PHQ-9 (sons' RR 3.6, 95 % CI 1.4-8.8; daughters' RR 1.8, 95 % CI 1.1-3.1). Associations remained for insomnia in sons, exhaustion in daughters and fatigue in both sons and daughters when depression, negative intrusive thoughts and avoiding reminders of the parents' disease or death were included in a model.

    CONCLUSIONS: Approximately half of cancer-bereaved youth report no or little grief resolution 6 to 9 years post-loss, which is associated with fatigue, sleeping problems and depressive symptoms.

  • 4.
    Bylund-Grenklo, Tove
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholms Sjukhem .
    Kreicbergs, Ulrika
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Karolinska institutet.
    Uggla, Charlotta
    Karolinska Institutet .
    Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur A
    Island, USA.
    Nyberg, Tommy
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Steineck, Gunnar
    Karolinska Institutet, Göteborgs universitet.
    Fürst, Carl Johan
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholms Sjukhem Foundation, Lunds universitet .
    Teenagers want to be told when a parent's death is near: A nationwide study of cancer-bereaved youths' opinions and experiences.2015In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 944-950Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate cancer-bereaved youths' opinions and experiences of being told about a parent's imminent death from cancer and of barriers to this communication.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: This nationwide population-based survey included 622/851 (73%) youths (aged 18-26) who at age 13-16, 6-9 years earlier had lost a parent to cancer.

    RESULTS: In total 595 of 610 (98%) of the participants stated that teenage children should be informed when the parent's death was imminent (i.e. a matter of hours or days, not weeks). 59% stated that they themselves had been told this, 37% by the parents, 7% by parents and healthcare professionals together and 8% by professionals only. Frequent reasons for why the teenager and parents did not talk about imminent death before loss were that one (n=106) or both (n=25) of the parents together with the teenage child had pretended that the illness was not that serious, or that none of the parents had been aware that death was imminent (n=80). Up to a couple of hours before the loss, 43% of participants had not realized that death was imminent.

    CONCLUSION: In this population-based study virtually all youth who at ages 13-16 had lost a parent to cancer afterwards stated that teenagers should be told when loss is near, i.e. a matter of hours or days, not weeks. Many stated that they had not been given this information and few were informed by professionals, with implications for future improvements in end-of-life care of patients with teenage children.

  • 5.
    Carlsson, E
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Pettersson, M
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Öhlén, J
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Göteborgs universitet.
    Sawatzky, R
    Kanada.
    Smith, F
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Friberg, F
    Göteborgs universitet, Norge.
    Development and validation of the preparedness for Colorectal Cancer Surgery Questionnaire: PCSQ-pre 24.2016In: European Journal of Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1462-3889, E-ISSN 1532-2122, Vol. 25, p. 24-32, article id S1462-3889(16)30081-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aims of the study were to develop and psychometrically evaluate a patient-reported outcome instrument for the measurement of preoperative preparedness in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer.

    METHODS: This study was conducted in two stages: a) instrument development (item generation, construction of items and domains), empirical verification and b) instrument evaluation. A questionnaire with 28 items measuring preparedness for surgery was developed covering four domains and was tested for content validity with an expert panel and with patients. Psychometric testing of the questionnaire was conducted on 240 patients undergoing elective surgery for colorectal cancer.

    RESULTS: The scale content validity index of the preparedness items was 0.97. The final version consisted of 24 items measuring 4 subscales: Searching for and making use of information, Understanding and involvement in the care process, Making sense of the recovery process and Support and access to medical care. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed good model fit with standardized factor loadings ranging from 0.58 to 0.97. A well-fitting second-order factor model provided support for a total preparedness score with second-order factor loadings ranging from 0.75 to 0.93. The ordinal alpha values of the four latent factors ranged from 0.92 to 0.96, indicating good internal consistency. The polyserial correlations with the total score were 0.64 (p < 0.01) for the overall preparedness question and 0.37 (p < 0.01) for overall well-being.

    CONCLUSION: The Swedish Preparedness for Colorectal Cancer Surgery Questionnaire for use in the preoperative phase demonstrated good psychometric properties based on a sound conceptualization of preparedness.

  • 6.
    Eilegård Wallin, Alexandra
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Högskolan Dalarna.
    Steineck, Gunnar
    Göteborgs universitet, Karolinska institutet.
    Nyberg, Tommy
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kreicbergs, Ulrika
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Karolinska Institutet.
    Insufficient communication and anxiety in cancer-bereaved siblings: A nationwide long-term follow-up.2016In: Palliative & Supportive Care, ISSN 1478-9515, E-ISSN 1478-9523, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 488-494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine siblings' long-term psychological health in relation to their perception of communication with their family, friends, and healthcare professionals during a brother or sister's last month of life.

    METHOD: A nationwide questionnaire study was conducted during 2009 in Sweden of individuals who had lost a brother or sister to cancer within the previous two to nine years. Of the 240 siblings contacted, 174 (73%), participated. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was employed to assess psychological health (anxiety). The data are presented as proportions (%) and relative risks (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI 95%).

    RESULTS: Siblings who were not satisfied with the amount they talked about their feelings with others during their brother or sister's last month of life were more likely to report anxiety (15/58, 26%) than those who were satisfied (13/115, 11%; RR = 2.3(1.2-4.5)). The same was true for those who had been unable to talk to their family after bereavement (RR = 2.5(1.3-4.8)). Avoiding healthcare professionals for fear of being in their way increased siblings' risk of reporting anxiety at follow-up (RR = 2.2(1.1-4.6)), especially avoidance in the hospital setting (RR = 6.7(2.5-18.2)). No such differences were seen when the ill brother or sister was cared for at home.

    SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: Long-term anxiety in bereaved siblings might be due to insufficient communication. Avoiding healthcare professionals, especially when the brother or sister is cared for at the hospital, may also increase the risk of anxiety.

  • 7.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Andershed, Birgitta
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Department of Nursing, Gjøvik University College, Gjøvik, Norway.
    Sahlberg-Blom, Eva
    Örebro universitet.
    Ternestedt, Britt-Marie
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Karolinska institutet.
    "The unpredictable death"-The last year of life for patients with advanced COPD: Relatives' stories.2015In: Palliative & Supportive Care, ISSN 1478-9515, E-ISSN 1478-9523, Vol. 13, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The end stage of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is described as prolonged, and the symptom burden for patients with COPD is often high. It progresses slowly over several years and can be punctuated by abrupt exacerbations that sometimes end in sudden death or a recovery of longer or shorter duration. This makes it difficult to identify the critical junctures in order to prognosticate the progress and time of death. Patients with COPD often express a fear that the dying process is going to be difficult. There is a fear that the dyspnea will worsen and lead to death by suffocation. The present article aimed to retrospectively describe the final year of life for patients with advanced COPD with a focus on death and dying from the perspective of relatives.

    METHOD: Interviews were conducted with the relatives of deceased family members who had advanced COPD. In total, 13 interviews were conducted and analyzed by means of content analysis.

    RESULT: All relatives described the patients as having had a peaceful death that did not correspond with the worry expressed earlier by both the patients and themselves. During the final week of life, two different patterns in the progress of the illness trajectory emerged: a temporary improvement where death was unexpected and a continued deterioration where death was inevitable.

    SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: The patients and their relatives lived with uncertainty up until the time of death. Little support for psychosocial and existential needs was available. It is essential for the nurse to create relationships with patients and relatives that enable them to talk about dying and death on their own terms.

  • 8.
    El Malla, Hanan
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Steineck, Gunnar
    Göteborgs universitet, Karolinska institutet.
    Ylitalo Helm, Nathalie
    Göteborgs universitet, Karolinska institutet.
    Wilderäng, Ulrica
    Göteborgs universitet.
    El Sayed Elborai, Yasser
    Egypten.
    Elshami, Mohammad
    Egypten.
    Kreicbergs, Ulrika
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Karolinska institutet, Sophiahemmet högskola.
    Cancer disclosure-account from a pediatric oncology ward in Egypt.2017In: Psycho-Oncology, ISSN 1057-9249, E-ISSN 1099-1611, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 679-685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Informing the child about his/her diagnosis and treatment plan is essential; research has shown that it is related to the patient's quality of life and adherence to medication.

    METHODS: For 7 months during 2008 (February to September), 2 study-specific questionnaires were constructed and administered to 304 parents of children diagnosed with cancer at the Children's Cancer Hospital Egypt.

    RESULTS: Among the 313 eligible parents of children diagnosed with cancer, 304 (97%) answered the first questionnaire and 281 (92%) answered the second questionnaire. We found that nearly three-quarters (72%) of the parents had their child's cancer diagnosis communicated by the physician. Among the 72%, the rate of the children present with the parent or parents during the disease disclosure conversation was 39% (n = 85/219). The majority of the children were in the age group 5-18 years (55%).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that cancer disclosure at the Children's Cancer Hospital is to a certain degree common; yet even when disclosure does take place, it is mainly in the absence of the child. Moreover, the information provided during the conversation may not be fully comprehended by the parent or the child because of the physician's misleading use of terms when disclosing the disease. Therefore, better practice should be developed for disease disclosure, and proper communication should be established between the patients and the provider; patient autonomy should also have an influence in the clinical practice.

  • 9.
    Falk, Hanna
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Henoch, Ingela
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Ozanne, Anneli
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Öhlen, Joakim
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Göteborgs universitet.
    Ung, Eva Jakobsson
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Fridh, Isabell
    Högskolan i Borås.
    Sarenmalm, Elisabeth Kenne
    Skaraborgs sjukhus, Skövde.
    Falk, Kristin
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Differences in Symptom Distress Based on Gender and Palliative Care Designation Among Hospitalized Patients.2016In: Journal of Nursing Scholarship, ISSN 1527-6546, E-ISSN 1547-5069, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 569-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To explore patient-reported symptom distress in relation to documentation of symptoms and palliative care designation in hospital inpatients.

    DESIGN: This cross-sectional study analyzed data from 710 inpatients at two large hospitals in Sweden using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. Chart reviews focused on nurses' and physicians' symptom documentation and palliative turning point.

    METHODS: Descriptive statistics were calculated for all variables and provided summaries about the sample. Patients were grouped according to gender, age, palliative care designation, and symptom documentation. The t test and chi-square test were used to calculate whether symptom distress varied between groups. A two-way analysis of variance was conducted for multiple comparisons to explore the impact of gender and age on mean symptom distress.

    FINDINGS: Females reported higher levels of symptom distress than did males related to pain, fatigue, and nausea. When comparing symptom distress between males and females with documentation pertaining to symptoms, there were significant differences implying that females had to report higher levels of symptom distress than males in order to have their symptoms documented.

    CONCLUSIONS: Females need to report higher levels of symptom distress than do males for healthcare professionals to identify and document their symptoms. It can be hypothesized that females are not receiving the same attention and symptom alleviation as men. If so, this highlights a serious inequality in care that requires further exploration.

    CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Considering that common reasons why people seek health care are troublesome symptoms of illness, and that the clinical and demographic characteristics of inpatients are changing towards more advanced ages with serious illnesses, inadequate symptom assessment and management are a serious threat to the care quality.

  • 10.
    Hagell, Peter
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad.
    Alvariza, Anette
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC.
    Westergren, Albert
    Högskolan Kristianstad.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Linnéuniversitetet, Länssjukhuset i Kalmar.
    Assessment of burden among family caregivers of people with Parkinson's disease using the Zarit Burden Interview.2017In: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, ISSN 0885-3924, E-ISSN 1873-6513, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 272-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CONTEXT: Previous studies have supported the psychometric properties of the 22-item Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI-22) scale among family caregivers of people with various disorders, including Parkinson´s disease (PD). However, its short-forms have not been psychometrically tested among PD family caregivers, and available psychometric analyses have not accounted for the ordinal nature of item-level data.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the psychometric properties of the ZBI-22 and its short forms among family caregivers of people with PD, while taking account for the ordinal nature of data.

    METHODS: Cross-sectional postal survey ZBI-22 data from 66 family caregiver members (59% women; mean age, 69.6 years) of a local Swedish PD society branch were analysed according to classical test theory methods based on polychoric/polyserial correlations.

    RESULTS: Missing item responses were ≤5%. Corrected item-total correlations were ≥0.42 and floor-/ceiling effects were <20%, besides for the briefest (4- and 1-item) short-forms (20% and 40% floor effects, respectively). Reliability was good for all scales (ordinal alpha, 0.89-0.95). External construct validity was in general accordance with a priori expectations. Short-forms demonstrated good criterion-related validity (rs 0.87-0.99) and discriminative ability (AUC, 0.91-0.98) relative to the full ZBI-22.

    CONCLUSION: This study provides support for the reliability and validity of the ZBI-22 and its various short forms for use among PD family caregivers. In studies where caregiver burden is a central outcome, either ZBI-22 or -12 is suggested for use; other short-forms can be used when caregiver burden is of less central focus or for clinical screening.

  • 11.
    Harding, Richard
    et al.
    Storbritannien.
    Marchetti, Stefano
    Italien.
    Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D
    Nederländerna.
    Wilson, Donna M
    Kanada.
    Ruiz-Ramos, Miguel
    Spanien.
    Cardenas-Turanzas, Maria
    USA.
    Rhee, YongJoo
    Sydkorea.
    Morin, Lucas
    Karolinska institutet.
    Hunt, Katherine
    Storbritannien.
    Teno, Joan
    USA.
    Håkanson, Cecilia
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Karolinska institutet.
    Houttekier, Dirk
    Belgien.
    Deliens, Luc
    Belgien.
    Cohen, Joachim
    Belgien.
    Place of death for people with HIV: a population-level comparison of eleven countries across three continents using death certificate data.2018In: BMC Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1471-2334, E-ISSN 1471-2334, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: With over 1 million HIV-related deaths annually, quality end-of-life care remains a priority. Given strong public preference for home death, place of death is an important consideration for quality care. This 11 country study aimed to i) describe the number, proportion of all deaths, and demographics of HIV-related deaths; ii) identify place of death; iii) compare place of death to cancer patients iv), determine patient/health system factors associated with place of HIV-related death.

    METHODS: In this retrospective analysis of death certification, data were extracted for the full population (ICD-10 codes B20-B24) for 1-year period: deceased's demographic characteristics, place of death, healthcare supply.

    RESULTS: i) 19,739 deaths were attributed to HIV. The highest proportion (per 1000 deaths) was for Mexico (9.8‰), and the lowest Sweden (0.2‰). The majority of deaths were among men (75%), and those aged <50 (69.1%). ii) Hospital was most common place of death in all countries: from 56.6% in the Netherlands to 90.9% in South Korea. The least common places were hospice facility (3.3%-5.7%), nursing home (0%-17.6%) and home (5.9%-26.3%).iii) Age-standardised relative risks found those with HIV less likely to die at home and more likely to die in hospital compared with cancer patients, and in most countries more likely to die in a nursing home. iv) Multivariate analysis found that men were more likely to die at home in UK, Canada, USA and Mexico; a greater number of hospital beds reduced the likelihood of dying at home in Italy and Mexico; a higher number of GPs was associated with home death in Italy and Mexico.

    CONCLUSIONS: With increasing comorbidity among people ageing with HIV, it is essential that end-of-life preferences are established and met. Differences in place of death according to country and diagnosis demonstrate the importance of ensuring a "good death" for people with HIV, alongside efforts to optimise treatment.

  • 12.
    Hedman, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences. Karolinska institutet.
    Hellström, Ingrid
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences. Linköpings universitet.
    Ternestedt, Britt-Marie
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Karolinska institutet.
    Hansebo, Görel
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences. Karolinska instituet.
    Norberg, Astrid
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Umeå universitet.
    Sense of Self in Alzheimer’s Research Participants2018In: Clinical Nursing Research, ISSN 1054-7738, E-ISSN 1552-3799, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 191-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sense of self is vulnerable in people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and might be positively and negatively influenced by research participation. The purpose of this study was to describe how people with AD express their experience of being a research participant with respect to their sense of self. Interviews and support group conversations involving 13 people with mild and moderate AD were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Three themes were constructed: contributing to an important cause, gaining from participating, and experiencing risks and drawbacks. Participants described contributing to research as being in line with their lifelong values and lifestyles. They expressed contentment and pride about being research participants, emphasized their positive relationships with the researchers, and described participation as a meaningful activity. When research procedures threatened their sense of self, they were able to reason about risks and decline participation.

  • 13.
    Hellström, Ingrid
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Linköpings universitet.
    Håkanson, Cecilia
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Karolinska institutet.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Röda korsets högskola.
    Sandberg, Jonas
    Jönköpings universitet.
    Development of older men's caregiving roles for wives with dementia.2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 957-964Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This secondary analysis of qualitative interviews describes how older Swedish men approach the caregiver role for a wife with dementia, over time. An increasing number of male caregivers will become primary caregivers for partners living with dementia at home, and they will likely be caregivers for an extended period of time. It has been stated that caregiving experiences influence how older men think of themselves. The theoretical starting point is a constructivist position, offering an understanding of older caregiving men's constructions and reconstructions of themselves and their caregiver roles. Seven men, who were cohabiting with their wives, were interviewed on up to five occasions at home during a 5- to 6-year period. The findings comprise three themes; me and it, me despite it, it is me, depict how these men gradually take on and normalise the caregiving tasks, and how they develop and internalise a language based on their caring activities. The results provide understanding about the relationship between men as caregivers and how this influences them as individuals. By careful attention to each caregiving man's individual needs rather than making gendered assumptions about men and caring, the aim of the caregiver support for men might best target men's own meaning to the caring in their the everyday practices.

  • 14.
    Henriksson (Alvariza), Anette
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC.
    Förberedelse för att vårda: en intervention för närstående under pågående palliativ vård2013In: Omvårdnad på avancerad nivå: kärnkompetenser inom sjuksköterskans specialistområden / [ed] Anna-Karin Edberg, Anna Ehrenberg, Febe Friberg, Lars Wallin, Helle Wijk, Joakim Öhlén, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2013, 1, p. webb-Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Närstående har i dag en betydande roll i vårdandet och omhändertagandet av svårt sjuka/döende personer. För många är det en självklarhet att inta rollen som vårdare medan andra kanske inte ser sig ha något val. Ofta är närstående otillräckligt förberedda för att vårda och hantera den nya situationen, vilket kan medföra negativa konsekvenser. Det är därför viktigt med information och stöd i olika former till närstående under vårdtiden. Den här artikeln belyser närståendes situation och stöd till närstående. Artikeln beskriver ett särskilt stödprogram för närstående under pågående palliativ vård, närståendes erfarenheter av programmet och effekter av programmet (Henriksson 2012).

  • 15.
    Henriksson (Alvariza), Anette
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC.
    Hudson, Peter
    Australien.
    Öhlen, Joakim
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC.
    Thomas, Kristina
    Australien.
    Holm, Maja
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC.
    Carlander (Goliath), Ida
    Karolinska institutet.
    Hagell, Peter
    Högskolan Kristianstad.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linneuniversitetet.
    Use of the Preparedness for Caregiving Scale in Palliative Care: A Rasch Evaluation Study.2015In: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, ISSN 0885-3924, E-ISSN 1873-6513, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 533-541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CONTEXT: Studies have shown that family carers who feel more prepared for the caregiver role tend to have more favorable experiences. Valid and reliable methods are needed to identify family carers who may be less prepared for the role of supporting a person who needs palliative care.

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the measurement properties of the original English version and a Swedish version of the Preparedness for Caregiving Scale (PCS).

    METHODS: The sample (n = 674) was taken from four different intervention studies from Australia and Sweden, all focused on improving family carers' feelings of preparedness. Family carers of patients receiving palliative home care were selected, and baseline data were used. The measurement properties of the PCS were evaluated using the Rasch model.

    RESULTS: Both the English and Swedish versions of the PCS exhibit sound measurement properties according to the Rasch model. The items in the PCS captured different levels of preparedness. The response categories were appropriate and corresponded to the level of preparedness. No significant differential item functioning for age and sex was detected. Three items demonstrated differential item functioning by language but did not impact interpretation of scores. Reliability was high (>0.90) according to the Person Separation Index.

    CONCLUSION: The PCS is valid for use among family carers in palliative care. Data provide support for its use across age and gender groups as well as across the two language versions.

  • 16.
    Holm, Maja
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Karolinska institutet.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Carlander (Goliath), Ida
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Karolinska institutet.
    Fürst, Carl-Johan
    Lund universitet.
    Wengström, Yvonne
    Karolinska institutet, Örebro universitet .
    Öhlen, Joakim
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Göteborgs universitet.
    Alvariza, Anette
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Karolinska institutet, Capio Palliativ vård Dalen, Stockholm.
    Short-term and long-term effects of a psycho-educational group intervention for family caregivers in palliative home care - results from a randomized control trial.2016In: Psycho-Oncology, ISSN 1057-9249, E-ISSN 1099-1611, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 795-802Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Family caregivers in cancer and palliative care often face heavy responsibilities and feel insufficiently prepared for the situation as caregivers. This study evaluates short-term and long-term effects of a psycho-educational group intervention aiming to increase preparedness for family caregiving in specialized palliative home care.

    METHODS: The study design was a randomized control trial where family caregivers were allocated either to an intervention or control group. The intervention was delivered as a program including three sessions by health professionals (physician, nurse, and social worker/priest). Family caregivers from 10 specialized palliative home care settings were included. Questionnaires with validated instruments at baseline, upon completion, and 2 months following the intervention were used to measure effects of the intervention. The primary outcome was preparedness for caregiving in family caregivers.

    RESULTS: In total, 21 intervention programs were delivered, and 119 family caregivers completed all three measurements. The intervention group had significantly increased their preparedness for caregiving in both the short-term and long-term follow-up compared with the control group. The intervention group also reported significantly increased competence for caregiving in short-term but not long. No effects of the intervention were found on rewards for caregiving, caregiver burden, health, anxiety, or depression.

    CONCLUSIONS: The psycho-educational intervention has the potential to be used by health professionals to improve preparedness for caregiving among family caregivers in palliative care both in short and long terms. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 17.
    Holm, Maja
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Karolinska institutet.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linköpings universitet, Linnéuniversitetet.
    Carlander (Goliath), Ida
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Karolinska institutet.
    Wengström, Yvonne
    Karolinska Institutet, Örebro universitet.
    Öhlen, Joakim
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Göteborgs universitet.
    Alvariza, Anette
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Karolinska Institutet, Capio Dalen sjukhus, Stockholm.
    Characteristics of the Family Caregivers Who Did Not Benefit From a Successful Psychoeducational Group Intervention During Palliative Cancer Care: A Prospective Correlational Study.2017In: Cancer Nursing, ISSN 0162-220X, E-ISSN 1538-9804, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 76-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Although there has been a steady increase in intervention studies aimed toward supporting family caregivers in palliative cancer care, they often report modest effect sizes and there is a lack of knowledge about possible barriers to intervention effectiveness.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to explore the characteristics of family caregivers who did not benefit from a successful psychoeducational group intervention compared with the characteristics of those who did.

    INTERVENTION/METHODS: A psychoeducational intervention for family caregivers was delivered at 10 palliative settings in Sweden. Questionnaires were used to collect data at baseline and following the intervention. The Preparedness for Caregiving Scale was the main outcome for the study and was used to decide whether or not the family caregiver had benefited from the intervention (Preparedness for Caregiving Scale difference score ≤ 0 vs ≥ 1).

    RESULTS: A total of 82 family caregivers completed the intervention and follow-up. Caregivers who did not benefit from the intervention had significantly higher ratings of their preparedness and competence for caregiving and their health at baseline compared with the group who benefited. They also experienced lower levels of environmental burden and a trend toward fewer symptoms of depression.

    CONCLUSIONS: Family caregivers who did not benefit from the intervention tended to be less vulnerable at baseline. Hence, the potential to improve their ratings was smaller than for the group who did benefit.

    IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Determining family caregivers in cancer and palliative care who are more likely to benefit from an intervention needs to be explored further in research.

  • 18.
    Jalmsell, Li
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Visby lasarett.
    Kontio, Taru
    Karolinska institutet.
    Stein, Maria
    Karolinska institutet.
    Henter, Jan-Inge
    Karolinska institutet.
    Kreicbergs, Ulrika
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Karolinska institutet, Sophiahemmet.
    On the Child's Own Initiative: Parents Communicate with Their Dying Child About Death.2015In: Death Studies, ISSN 0748-1187, E-ISSN 1091-7683, Vol. 39, no 1-5, p. 111-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Open and honest communication has been identified as an important factor in providing good palliative care. However, there is no easy solution to if, when, and how parents and a dying child should communicate about death. This article reports how bereaved parents communicated about death with their child, dying from a malignancy. Communication was often initiated by the child and included communication through narratives such as fairy tales and movies and talking more directly about death itself. Parents also reported that their child prepared for death by giving instructions about his or her grave or funeral and giving away toys.

  • 19.
    Jalmsell, Li
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Visby lasarett.
    Lövgren, Malin
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kreicbergs, Ulrika
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Karolinska institutet.
    Henter, Jan-Inge
    Karolinska institutet.
    Frost, Britt-Marie
    Uppsala universitet.
    Children with cancer share their views: tell the truth but leave room for hope.2016In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 105, no 9, p. 1094-1099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: One in five children diagnosed with cancer will die from the disease. Few studies have focused on how children with cancer want to receive bad news, such as when no more treatment options are available, and that was the aim of this study.

    METHODS: We conducted individual interviews with ten children with cancer, aged seven to 17 years, at a single paediatric oncology unit in central Sweden. Interviews were audiotaped and analysed with systematic text condensation. Bad news was defined as information about a potentially fatal outcome, such as a disease relapse, or information that the treatment administered was no longer working and that there was no more treatment possible.

    RESULTS: All children expressed that they wanted truthful information, and they did not want to be excluded from bad news regarding their illness. They wanted to be informed as positively as possible, allowing them to maintain hope, and in words that they could understand. They also wanted to receive any bad news at the same time as their parents.

    CONCLUSION: Children with cancer want to be fully informed about their disease, but they also wanted it to be relayed as positively as possible so that they could stay hopeful. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 20.
    Janze, Anna
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Hospice Ersta diakoni, Ersta sjukhus.
    Henriksson (Alvariza), Anette
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Capio Geriatrik Dalen Stockholm.
    Preparing for palliative caregiving as a transition in the awareness of death: family carer experiences.2014In: International Journal of Palliative Nursing, ISSN 1357-6321, E-ISSN 2052-286X, Vol. 20, no 10, p. 494-501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of this study was to explore family caregivers´ experiences from partners' stories about preparing for caregiving.

    METHODS: The study had a descriptive and interpretive design using qualitative interviews and qualitative content analysis.

    RESULTS: Preparing for caregiving was described in the two sub-themes: living in uncertainty, focusing on the present and preparing for the future; and preparing for caregiving while transitioning to new roles. One overarching theme 'preparing for caregiving in awareness of death' was seen as a common thread throughout the results. Preparing meant dealing with changes in life, living in uncertainty and transitioning to new roles.

    CONCLUSION: Family (partner) caregivers continuously tried to prepare in different ways in response to their partners' illness. Preparing for caregiving meant to willingly or unwillingly prepare for the dying and death of their partner and awareness about this was always present in some way, influencing the whole experience.

  • 21.
    Lövgren, Malin
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC.
    Barncancerfonden,
    Barncancerfonden.
    Att ha ett syskon med cancer: Information till föräldrar2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här skriften ingår i Barncancerfondens skriftserie där vi tar upp olika typer av barncancer, behandlingar och annat som berör barn med cancer och deras familjer. Den är tänkt att ge föräldrar stöd i hur de kan synliggöra syskon, som ofta hamnar i skuggan av en syster eller bror som insjuknar i cancer.

  • 22.
    Lövgren, Malin
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC.
    Barncancerfonden,
    Barncancerfonden.
    Jag då!: Till dig som har ett syskon med cancer2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här skriften ingår i Barncancerfondens skriftserie där vi tar upp olika typer av barncancer, behandlingar och annat som berör barn med cancer och deras familjer. Den här skriften vänder sig till dig som har en bror eller syster med cancer och är tänkt att ge stöd, när livet ställs på ända.

  • 23.
    Lövgren, Malin
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC.
    Barncancerfonden,
    Barncancerfonden.
    När det värsta har hänt: Hur föräldrar kan stötta syskon som mist2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här skriften ingår i Barncancerfondens skriftserie där vi tar upp olika typer av barncancer, behandlingar och annat som berör barn med cancer och deras familjer. Syftet med skriften är att ge föräldrar stöd i hur de kan möta syskon som mist en bror eller syster i cancer.

  • 24.
    Lövgren, Malin
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC.
    Barncancerfonden,
    Barncancerfonden.
    Saknar dig!: Till dig som förlorat ett syskon i cancer2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    den här skriften ingår i Barncancerfondens skriftserie där vi tar upp olika typer av barncancer, behandlingar och annat som berör barn med cancer och deras familjer. Tanken med skriften är att ge stöd till dig som förlorat en bror eller syster i cancer.

  • 25.
    Lövgren, Malin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bylund-Grenklo, Tove
    Karolinska Institutet, Linnéuniversitetet.
    Jalmsell, Li
    Visby Lasarett, Uppsala universitet.
    Wallin, Alexandra Eilegård
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Kreicbergs, Ulrika
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Karolinska Institutet.
    Bereaved Siblings' Advice to Health Care Professionals Working With Children With Cancer and Their Families.2016In: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1043-4542, E-ISSN 1532-8457, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 297-305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Siblings of children with cancer experience psychosocial distress during the illness and after bereavement, but often stand outside the spotlight of attention and care. This study explored bereaved siblings' advice to health care professionals (HCPs) working with children with cancer and their families.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a nationwide Swedish survey of bereaved siblings, 174/240 (73%) participated. Of these, 108 answered an open-ended question about what advice they would give to HCPs working with children with cancer and their families. In this study, responses to this single question were analyzed using content analysis.

    RESULTS: The most common advice, suggested by 56% of siblings, related to their own support. One third suggested giving better medical information to siblings. Some siblings wanted to be more practically involved in their brother's/sister's care and suggested that HCPs should give parents guidance on how to involve siblings. Other common advice related to psychosocial aspects, such as the siblings' wish for HCPs to mediate hope, yet also realism, and the importance of asking the ill child about what care they wanted.

    CONCLUSION: Information, communication, and involvement should be emphasized by HCPs to support siblings' psychosocial needs in both the health care setting and within the family.

  • 26.
    Lövgren, Malin
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet, Högskolan Dalarna.
    Jalmsell, Li
    Uppsala universitet, Visby Lasarett.
    Eilegård Wallin, Alexandra
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Steineck, Gunnar
    Karolinska institutet, Göteborgs universitet.
    Kreicbergs, Ulrika
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Karolinska institutet.
    Siblings' experiences of their brother's or sister's cancer death: A nationwide follow-up 2-9 years later.2016In: Psycho-Oncology, ISSN 1057-9249, E-ISSN 1099-1611, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 435-440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine siblings' experiences of their brother's or sister's cancer death and if these experiences influenced levels of anxiety 2-9 years later.

    METHODS: This nationwide survey was conducted in Sweden in 2009. All siblings who had a brother/sister who was diagnosed with cancer before the age of 17 years and who died before the age of 25 years during 2000-2007 were invited. Of those, 174 siblings participated (participation rate: 73%). Mixed data from the survey about the siblings' experiences of death were included as well as data from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. To examine the experiences, descriptive statistics and content analysis were used. Mann-Whitney U-test was conducted to investigate if the experiences influenced anxiety 2-9 years later.

    RESULTS: The siblings reported poor knowledge and experienced a lack of communication about their brother's/sister's death, for example, about the time frame, bodily changes near death, and about their own experiences. Siblings who reported that no one talked with them about what to expect when their brother/sister was going to die reported higher levels of anxiety 2-9 years after the loss. Seventy percent reported that they witnessed their brother/sister suffering in the last hours in life. Many of those who were not present during the illness period and at the time of death expressed regret.

    CONCLUSION: It is important to prepare siblings for their brother's/sister's illness and death as it may decrease anxiety and regrets later on. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 27.
    Lövgren, Malin
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Karolinska institutet.
    Sejersen, Thomas
    Karolinska institutet.
    Kreicbergs, Ulrika
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Karolinska institutet.
    Information and treatment decisions in severe Spinal muscular atrophy: A parental follow-up2016In: European journal of paediatric neurology, ISSN 1090-3798, E-ISSN 1532-2130, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 830-838Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The parents of children with severe spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) face difficult ethical decisions regarding their child's treatment. This study explored the experience of parents of children with severe SMA concerning information and treatment decisions.

    Material and methods

    This nationwide survey, conducted in 2013, is based on parents of children who were born in Sweden between 2000 and 2010 and later diagnosed with SMA type I or II where respiratory support was considered the first year of life (N = 61, participation rate: 87%). The survey involved parents' perception of the child's care and the questions used in this study covered information given and treatment decisions. Descriptive statistics were used.

    Results

    None of the parents reported that the health care professionals made decisions concerning the child's treatment without informing them first, and 80% reported feeling confident about the decisions made. Of the bereaved parents, 11/48 (23%) reported that they got no information about respiratory support, compared to 2/13 (15%) of non-bereaved. Bereaved parents were more likely to report being satisfied with and understanding the information given about the illness and its treatment than non-bereaved parents.

    Conclusion

    All parents reported having been informed before treatment decisions were made and a vast majority reported feeling confident about the decisions. However, a quarter of the parents declined to have received information about respiratory support, which indicates that the parents did not sufficiently understand the available respiratory treatment options, and that their children may not receive the kind of care that is recommended in guidelines.

  • 28.
    Lövgren, Malin
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Karolinska institutet.
    Sejersen, Thomas
    Karolinska institutet.
    Kreicbergs, Ulrika
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Karolinska institutet.
    Parents' Experiences and Wishes at End of Life in Children with Spinal Muscular Atrophy Types I and II.2016In: Journal of Pediatrics, ISSN 0022-3476, E-ISSN 1097-6833, Vol. 175, p. 201-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To explore experiences and wishes of bereaved parents concerning end-of-life care for their child with severe spinal muscular atrophy.

    STUDY DESIGN: A follow-up survey was conducted in 2013 on parents of deceased Swedish children who were born between 2000 and 2010 and later diagnosed with spinal muscular atrophy type I or II (n = 48). The questions used in this study covered location of death (LoD), support from health care staff, and parents' wishes and concerns about their child's end-of-life care.

    RESULTS: One-half of those who had wishes about LoD (16/32) wanted their child to die at home, rather than at the hospital. All of those who wanted the child to die at the hospital had their wishes fulfilled. Among those who wanted the child to die at home, 10 of 16 got their wish. Among parents who talked with a physician about how they wanted their child to pass away (n = 26), all but 2 had their wishes fulfilled. Thirty-six parents (75%) reported that their child had siblings: 12 reported that the sibling was too young for professional psychological support, and only 4 of the remaining 24 siblings received such support after the death of their brother or sister.

    CONCLUSIONS: Parents' communication with the physician about their wishes and concerns regarding their child's end-of-life care and preferred LoD contributed to their wishes being fulfilled. The wish of hospital death was fulfilled more often than the wish of home deaths. A vast majority of siblings did not receive psychological support after death of their brother or sister.

  • 29.
    Mazaheri, Monir
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Iran.
    Ericson-Lidman, Eva
    Umeå universitet.
    Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali
    Iran.
    Öhlén, Joakim
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Göteborgs universitet.
    Norberg, Astrid
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Umeå universitet.
    Clear conscience grounded in relations: Expressions of Persian-speaking nurses in Sweden.2017In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 349-361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Conscience is an important concept in ethics, having various meanings in different cultures. Because a growing number of healthcare professionals are of immigrant background, particularly within the care of older people, demanding multiple ethical positions, it is important to explore the meaning of conscience among care providers within different cultural contexts.

    RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to illuminate the meaning of conscience by enrolled nurses with an Iranian background working in residential care for Persian-speaking people with dementia.

    RESEARCH DESIGN: A phenomenological hermeneutical method guided the study. Participants and research context: A total of 10 enrolled nurses with Iranian background, aged 33-46 years, participated in the study. All worked full time in residential care settings for Persian-speaking people with dementia in a large city, in Sweden. Ethical considerations: The study was approved by the Regional Ethical Review Board for ethical vetting of research involving humans. Participants were given verbal and written study information and assured that their participation was voluntary and confidential.

    FINDINGS: Three themes were constructed including perception of conscience, clear conscience grounded in relations and striving to keep a clear conscience. The conscience was perceived as an inner guide grounded in feelings, which is dynamic and subject to changes throughout life. Having a clear conscience meant being able to form a bond with others, to respect them and to get their confirmation that one does well. To have a clear conscience demanded listening to the voice of the conscience. The enrolled nurses strived to keep their conscience clear by being generous in helping others, accomplishing daily tasks well and behaving nicely in the hope of being treated the same way one day.

    CONCLUSION: Cultural frameworks and the context of practice needed to be considered in interpreting the meaning of conscience and clear conscience.

  • 30.
    Melcher, Ulrica
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Ersta sjukhus, Stockholm.
    Sandell, Rolf
    Lunds universitet.
    Henriksson (Alvariza), Anette
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Ersta sjukhus, Capio Geriatrik Dalen, Stockholm..
    Maintaining everyday life in a family with a dying parent: Teenagers' experiences of adapting to responsibility.2015In: Palliative & Supportive Care, ISSN 1478-9515, E-ISSN 1478-9523, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 1595-1601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Teenagers are living through a turbulent period in their development, when they are breaking away from the family to form their own identities, and so they are particularly vulnerable to the stressful situation of having a parent affected by a progressive and incurable illness. The current study sought to gain more knowledge about the ways that teenagers themselves describe living in a family with a seriously ill and dying parent. More specifically, the aims were to describe how teenagers are emotionally affected by everyday life in a family with a dying parent and to determine how they attempt to adapt to this situation.

    METHOD: The study employed a descriptive and interpretive design using qualitative content analysis. A total of 10 teenagers (aged 14-19 years, 7 boys and 3 girls) participated through repeated, individual, informal interviews that were carried out as free-ranging conversations.

    RESULTS: While contending with their own vulnerable developmental period of life, the teenagers were greatly affected by their parent's illness and took on great responsibility for supporting their parents and siblings, and for maintaining family life. Lacking sufficient information and support left them rather unprepared, having to guess and to interpret the vague signs of failing health on their own, with feelings of uncertainty and loneliness as a consequence.

    SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: Support from healthcare professionals should be designed to help and encourage parents to have open communications about their illness with their teenaged children. Our results add further support to the literature, reinforcing the need for an approach that uses a systemic perspective and considers the family to be the appropriate unit of care and offers a suitable support system.

  • 31.
    Morin, Lucas
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Aubry, Régis
    Frankrike.
    Frova, Luisa
    Italien.
    MacLeod, Roderick
    Australien.
    Wilson, Donna M
    Kanada.
    Loucka, Martin
    Tjeckien.
    Csikos, Agnes
    Ungern.
    Ruiz-Ramos, Miguel
    Spanien.
    Cardenas-Turanzas, Marylou
    USA.
    Rhee, YongJoo
    Korea.
    Teno, Joan
    USA.
    Öhlén, Joakim
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Göteborgs universitet.
    Deliens, Luc
    Belgien.
    Houttekier, Dirk
    Belgien.
    Cohen, Joachim
    Belgien.
    Estimating the need for palliative care at the population level: A cross-national study in 12 countries.2017In: Palliative Medicine: A Multiprofessional Journal, ISSN 0269-2163, E-ISSN 1477-030X, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 526-536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: To implement the appropriate services and develop adequate interventions, detailed estimates of the needs for palliative care in the population are needed.

    AIM: To estimate the proportion of decedents potentially in need of palliative care across 12 European and non-European countries.

    DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study using death certificate data.

    SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: All adults (⩾18 years) who died in 2008 in Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Hungary, Italy, Spain (Andalusia, 2010), Sweden, Canada, the United States (2007), Korea, Mexico, and New Zealand (N = 4,908,114). Underlying causes of death were used to apply three estimation methods developed by Rosenwax et al., the French National Observatory on End-of-Life Care, and Murtagh et al., respectively.

    RESULTS: The proportion of individuals who died from diseases that indicate palliative care needs at the end of life ranged from 38% to 74%. We found important cross-country variation: the population potentially in need of palliative care was lower in Mexico (24%-58%) than in the United States (41%-76%) and varied from 31%-83% in Hungary to 42%-79% in Spain. Irrespective of the estimation methods, female sex and higher age were independently associated with the likelihood of being in need of palliative care near the end of life. Home and nursing home were the two places of deaths with the highest prevalence of palliative care needs.

    CONCLUSION: These estimations of the size of the population potentially in need of palliative care provide robust indications of the challenge countries are facing if they want to seriously address palliative care needs at the population level.

  • 32.
    Olsson, Mariann
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholms sjukhem.
    Lundberg, Tina
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Karolinska institutet .
    Fürst, Carl Johan
    Lunds universitet.
    Öhlén, Joakim
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Forinder, Ulla
    Karolinska institutet, Högskolan i Gävle.
    Psychosocial Well-Being of Young People Who Participated in a Support Group Following the Loss of a Parent to Cancer.2017In: Journal of social work in end-of-life & palliative care, ISSN 1552-4264, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 44-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the evidence of unmet support needs among young people who have lost a parent to cancer, only a few support group initiatives have been reported. This observational prospective study explored the psychosocial well-being of young people who participated in support groups at a Swedish specialist palliative care setting. On three occasions, 29 participants, aged 16-28 years, answered questionnaires covering characteristics of the participants, circumstances of the losses, psychosocial well-being of the young people, and their own assessment of the support groups. The support groups attracted mostly young women who were often unprepared for the loss. The living arrangements differed between younger and older participants; however, the loss-related variables did not differ. Significant positive changes were found regarding a sense of meaning in their future life and life satisfaction. The helpfulness of the group was assessed as high/very high and the group brought a valuable fellowship with others in a similar situation. Universality and beneficial interactions were reported and strengthened psychosocial well-being developed over time. This change, according to the young people themselves, may be attributed to the group support. The findings are useful for planning interventions to support young people in bereavement in order to enhance their psychosocial well-being.

  • 33.
    Olsson, Yvonne
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Clarén, Lena
    Lunds universitet.
    Alvariza, Anette
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Capio Palliativ vård Dalen, Stockholm.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Linnéuniversitetet, Linköping universitet.
    Hagell, Peter
    Högskolan Kristianstad.
    Health and Social Service Access Among Family Caregivers of People with Parkinson's Disease.2016In: Journal of Parkinson's Disease, ISSN 1877-7171, E-ISSN 1877-718X, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 581-587Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Being a family caregiver for a person with Parkinson's disease (PD) can negatively impact health and wellbeing, but it appears less clear to what extent caregivers' health/social service needs are met.

    OBJECTIVE: We explored the extent to which PD family caregivers experience sufficient access to health/social services, as compared to age-matched controls; and the associations between this and demographic and health-related variables.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 66 PD family caregivers and 79 age-matched control subjects including the SF-36 health survey, the Nottingham Health Profile Sleep section (NHP-Sleep), and questions regarding contacts with various health/social related services and whether these were perceived as sufficient.

    RESULTS: People reporting insufficient access (n = 29) were more often PD family caregivers than controls (83% vs. 37%), did more often have a disease of their own (79% vs. 46%), and reported poorer health according to the SF-36 and the NHP-Sleep. Being a PD family caregiver (OR, 8.90), reporting more pain (OR, 1.02) and having an own disease (OR, 3.46) were independently associated with insufficient health/social service access.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results imply that those in greatest need for health/social services (i.e., those with poorer health, an own disease, and who are PD family caregivers) are those whose health/social service needs are least met. Larger studies are needed for firmer conclusions and regarding how unmet health/social service needs impacts caregiver health and wellbeing. Health/social service providers should not only focus on patients but also consider their family members' needs.

  • 34.
    Rejnö, Åsa
    et al.
    Skaraborgs sjukhus, Skövde.
    Silfverberg, Gunilla
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences. Skaraborgs sjukhus, Skövde.
    Ternestedt, Britt-Marie
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC.
    Reasoning about truth-telling in end-of-life care of patients with acute stroke.2017In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 100-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Ethical problems are a universal phenomenon but rarely researched concerning patients dying from acute stroke. These patients often have a reduced consciousness from stroke onset and thereby lack ability to convey their needs and could be described as 'incompetent' decision makers regarding their own care.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to deepen the understanding of stroke team members' reasoning about truth-telling in end-of-life care due to acute stroke.

    RESEARCH DESIGN: Qualitative study based on individual interviews utilizing combined deductive and inductive content analysis.

    PARTICIPANTS AND RESEARCH CONTEXT: A total of 15 stroke team members working in stroke units of two associated county hospitals in western Sweden participated.

    ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS: The study was approved by the Regional Ethics Review Board, Gothenburg, Sweden.

    FINDINGS: The main findings were the team members' dynamic movement between the categories 'Truth above all' and 'Hide truth to protect'. Honesty was highly valued and considered as a reason for always telling the truth, with the argument of truth as common morality. However, the carers also argued for hiding the truth for different reasons such as not adding extra burden in the sorrow, awaiting a timely moment and not being a messenger of bad news. Withholding truth could both be seen as a way of protecting themselves from difficult conversations and to protect others.

    DISCUSSION: The results indicate that there are various barriers for truthfulness. Interpreted from a virtue of ethics perspective, withholding of truth might also be seen as an expression of sound judgement to put the patient's best interest first.

    CONCLUSION: The carers may need support in the form of supervision to be given space to reflect on their experience and thereby promote ethically justified care. Here, the multi-professional team can be of great value and contribute through inter-professional sharing of knowledge.

  • 35.
    Rustad, Else Cathrine
    et al.
    Norge.
    Furnes, Bodil
    Norge.
    Cronfalk, Berit Seiger
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Stord Haugesund University College, Stord, Norway, Karolinska institutet.
    Dysvik, Elin
    Norge.
    Older patients' experiences during care transition.2016In: Patient Preference and Adherence, ISSN 1177-889X, E-ISSN 1177-889X, Vol. 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: A fragmented health care system leads to an increased demand for continuity of care across health care levels. Research indicates age-related differences during care transition, with the oldest patients having experiences and needs that differ from those of other patients. To meet the older patients' needs and preferences during care transition, professionals must understand their experiences.

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to explore how patients ≥80 years of age experienced the care transition from hospital to municipal health care services.

    METHODS: The study has a descriptive, explorative design, using semistructured interviews. Fourteen patients aged ≥80 participated in the study. Qualitative content analysis was used to describe the individuals' experiences during care transition.

    RESULTS: Two complementary themes emerged during the analysis: "Participation depends on being invited to plan the care transition" and "Managing continuity of care represents a complex and challenging process".

    DISCUSSION: Lack of participation, insufficient information, and vague responsibilities among staff during care transition seemed to limit the continuity of care. The patients are the vulnerable part of the care transition process, although they possess important resources, which illustrate the importance of making their voice heard. Older patients are therefore likely to benefit from more intensive support. A tailored, patient-centered follow-up of each patient is suggested to ensure that patient preferences and continuity of care to adhere to the new situation.

  • 36.
    Smedbäck, Jonas
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Öhlén, Joakim
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Göteborgs universitet.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Linnéuniversitetet.
    Alvariza, Anette
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Capio Palliativ vård Dalen sjukhus, Karolinska institutet.
    Fürst, Carl-Johan
    Lunds universitet.
    Håkanson, Cecilia
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences. Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Karolinska institutet.
    Palliative care during the final week of life of older people in nursing homes: A register-based study.2017In: Palliative & Supportive Care, ISSN 1478-9515, E-ISSN 1478-9523, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 417-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to explore the presence of symptoms, symptom relief, and other key aspects of palliative care during the final week of life among older people residing in nursing homes.

    METHOD: Our study employed data from the Swedish Palliative Care Register on all registered individuals aged 60 and older who had died in nursing homes during the years 2011 and 2012. Variables pertaining to monitoring and treatment of symptoms, end-of-life discussions, circumstances around the death, and the individual characteristics of deceased individuals were explored using descriptive statistics.

    RESULTS: The most common underlying causes of death among the 49,172 deceased nursing home residents were circulatory diseases (42.2%) and dementia (22.7%). The most prevalent symptom was pain (58.7%), followed by rattles (42.4%), anxiety (33.0%), confusion (21.8%), shortness of breath (14.0%), and nausea (11.1%). Pain was the symptom with the highest degree of total relief (46.3%), whereas shortness of breath and confusion were totally relieved in 6.1 and 4.3% of all individuals, respectively. The use of valid instruments for symptom assessment was reported for pain in 12.3% and for other symptoms in 7.8% of subjects. The most prevalent individual prescriptions for injection PRN (pro re nata, according to circumstances) were for pain treatment (79.5%) and rattles (72.8%). End-of-life discussions were performed with 27.3% of all the deceased individuals and with 53.9% of their relatives. Of all individuals, 82.1% had someone present at death, and 15.8% died alone. Of all the nursing home resident deaths recorded, 45.3% died in their preferred place.

    SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: There were large variations in degree of relief from different symptoms during the final week of life. Pain was the most prevalent symptom, and it was also the symptom with the highest proportion of total/partial relief. Other symptoms were less prevalent but also less well-relieved. Our results indicate a need for improvement of palliative care in nursing home settings, focusing on management of distressing symptoms and promotion of end-of-life discussions.

  • 37.
    Sveen, Josefin
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC.
    Det finns inget rätt eller fel i sorg2016In: Barn & Cancer, no 2, p. 17-18Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 38.
    Sveen, Josefin
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Uppsala universitet.
    Arnberg, Filip
    Uppsala universitet, Stockholms universitet.
    Arinell, Hans
    Uppsala universitet.
    Johannesson, Kerstin Bergh
    Uppsala universitet.
    The role of personality traits in trajectories of long-term posttraumatic stress and general distress six years after the tsunami in Southeast Asia2016In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 97, p. 134-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims were to examine whether trajectories of posttraumatic stress (PTS) and general distress are related to personality traits and to investigate personality's contributing factor to PTS and general distress. The sample was 2549 Swedish tourists who survived the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and responded to postal surveys at 1, 3 and 6 years after the tsunami, including assessment of personality traits, PTS and general distress. The sample was categorized into a direct exposure group and an indirect exposure comparison group. For both PTS and general distress, individuals with a resilient trajectory were lower in the trait neuroticism than those in the symptomatic trajectories whereas there were no differences in personality traits between the resilient trajectory and the low exposure comparison group. Neuroticism was strongly related to trajectories of both PTS and general distress even when adjusting for important risk factors such as traumatic bereavement and exposure severity. Other personality traits demonstrated weak associations with the trajectories. The present findings correspond with the notion of neuroticism as a vulnerability factor for symptomatic long-term trajectories of posttraumatic and general distress whereas resiliency was not predicated by particularly low levels of neuroticism.

  • 39.
    Ventura, F
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Sawatzky, R
    Kanada.
    Öhlén, Joakim
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Göteborgs universitet.
    Karlsson, P
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Koinberg, I
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Challenges of evaluating a computer-based educational programme for women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer: A randomised controlled trial.2017In: European Journal of Cancer Care, ISSN 0961-5423, E-ISSN 1365-2354, Vol. 26, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a two-group, multi-centre, randomised controlled 9 months trial, we (1) evaluated the impact of a computer-based educational programme compared to standard care and (2) examined whether different patterns of programme usage could be explained by demographic, medical and psychosocial factors. We involved 226 Swedish-speaking women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer and scheduled for surgery. Primary outcomes were health self-efficacy and health care participation measured by the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Supportive System instrument. Secondary outcomes were anxiety and depression levels measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast and Sense of Coherence scales measured psychosocial factors for the study's secondary aim. Multi-level modelling revealed no statistically significant impact of the computer-based educational programme over time on the outcomes. Subsequent exploratory regression analysis revealed that older women with axillary dissection and increased physical well-being were more likely to use the programme. Furthermore, receiving post-operative chemotherapy and increased meaningfulness decreased the likelihood of use. Providing reliable and evidence-based medical and rehabilitation information via a computer-based programme might not be enough to influence multi-dimensional outcomes in women diagnosed with breast cancer. The use of these programmes should be further explored to promote adherence to e-Health supportive interventions.

  • 40.
    Wallin, Viktoria
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Karolinska institutet, Ersta sjukhus.
    Carlander (Goliath), Ida
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Ersta sjukhus, Karolinska institutet.
    Sandman, Per-Olof
    Karolinska institutet.
    Ternestedt, Britt-Marie
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Ersta sjukhus, Karolinska institutet, Stockholms sjukhem.
    Håkanson, Cecilia
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Ersta sjukhus, Karolinska institutet.
    Maintaining ordinariness around food: partners' experienceies of everyday life with a dying person.2014In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 23, no 19-20, p. 2748-2756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and objectives: To explore partners’ experiences of everyday life in caring for a dying person with eating deficiencies at home.

    Background: When a dying person receives care at home, eating deficiencies can influence everyday life for family members, who often take responsibility for the provision of food and meals. The literature reveals this to be emotionally stressful. Partners of dying persons are challenged both as caregivers and as partners who will soon lose their life companion. There is a need for studies that provide enhanced understanding about the influence of dying persons’ eating deficiencies on their partners, from the perspective of everyday life.

    Design: A qualitative design was chosen to obtain experience-based knowledge of relevance for the clinical context of palliative home care.

    Methods: Nine people were purposefully selected and interviewed three–six months after the death of their partner. Data collection and analysis were guided by an interpretive descriptive method.

    Results: The partners described experiences of how eating deficiencies brought about changes in the participants’ everyday lives. Two patterns of experiences were identified: the challenge of doing the best for their dying partner around matters involving food and mealtimes, and experiences of striving to maintain ordinariness, including holding on to social values around food, despite experiences of unfamiliarity when the dying partners’ habits were changed.

    Conclusion:Living close to a person who has eating deficiencies at the end of life is challenging, both from a caring perspective and for personal well-being.

    Relevance to clinical practice: The findings can assist palliative home care teams and other healthcare professionals to give support that goes beyond giving practical advice about food. Initiating talk about the current situation around food and meals at home, by posing questions and opening the way for conversations, is suggested.

  • 41.
    Ångström-Brännström, Charlotte
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Dahlqvist, Vera
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Strandberg, Gunilla
    Umeå universitet.
    Norberg, Astrid
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Umeå universitet.
    Descriptions of Comfort in the Social Networks Surrounding a Dying Child2014In: Vård i Norden, ISSN 0107-4083, E-ISSN 1890-4238, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 4-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe how comforters of one dying child were comforted, described by the child's mother and nurse.

    Background: The death of a child is one of the greatest losses parents can sustain and a stressful experience for nurses. Those who provide comfort may also need comfort, yet little is known about how comforters are comforted.

    Method: The interviews with mother and nurse were analysed using content analysis. Persons and activities mentioned as comforting were outlined in a sociogram.

    Findings: The findings show that the mother received comfort from her child and family, the nurse, extended family and others close to the family. She found comfort in being involved in the care and sharing worries with the nurse and in self-comfort. She described that siblings found comfort in each other, in living everyday life, in music and in expressing their feelings in drawings. The nurse gained comfort from sharing hardships with colleagues and a relative and from making a difference to the child.

    Conclusion: The findings provide a picture of interacting comforting social networks surrounding one dying child.

  • 42.
    Ångström-Brännström, Charlotte
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Norberg, Astrid
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Umeå universitet.
    Comforting measures described by staff working in paediatric units.2017In: Nursing children and young people, ISSN 2046-2344, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 24-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim Children with cancer identify staff members, who work with them in paediatric units, as their most important comforters. This study aimed to shed light on how those staff members deliver this comfort. Methods Semi-structured interviews were performed and the content then analysed. Nine families (n=9) and eight staff members (n=8) participated in the study. Findings The staff described caring for the children and the whole family. They implemented certain comforting measures with the child, and described how they provided support to parents. Staff described how they felt comforted by relating to the children they were caring for. Conclusion Staff working in paediatric units develop good relationships with children and parents and comfort them using methods described in the literature. The quality of the staff's positive relationships with the children marked all their actions.

  • 43.
    Öhlén, Joakim
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Göteborgs universitet.
    Cohen, Joachim
    Belgien.
    Håkanson, Cecilia
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Karolinska institutet.
    Determinants in the place of death for people with different cancer types: a national population-based study.2017In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 455-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Place of death has for the past decade increasingly come to be regarded as a robust indicator of how palliative care is organized and provided, and is also recognized as an important factor for well being at the end of life. Variations in place of cancer deaths have previously been reported in the context of country-specific healthcare organization, but without differentiating between cancer types and national regional variations. Our aim was to examine, at a population level, where people with cancer diseases die in Sweden, and to investigate associations of place of death and cancer type with individual, socioeconomic and geographical characteristics of the deceased.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: This population level study is based on death certificate data (sex; age; underlying cause of death and place of death) and population register data (educational attainment, marital status, living arrangements, area of residence, degree of urbanization, and healthcare region) of all 2012 cancer deaths in Sweden, with a registered place of death (hospital, nursing home, home, other places). Data were explored descriptively. To investigate associations between place of death and cancer types, and individual, socioeconomic and environmental characteristics, a series of multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed.

    RESULTS: The most frequent type of cancer death occurring at home was upper gastrointestinal cancer (25.6%) and the least frequent was hematological cancer (15.2%). Regional variations in cancer deaths occurring at home ranged from 17.1% to 28.4%. Factors associated with place of death by cancer type were age, educational attainment, marital status, healthcare regions and degree of urbanization.

    CONCLUSION: Large healthcare regional variations in place of death among different cancer types were found. The socioeconomic inequality previously demonstrated for screening, diagnostic and treatment processes, rehabilitation and survival thus also seems to be reflected in the place of death.

  • 44.
    Öhlén, Joakim
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Göteborgs universitet.
    Russell, Lara
    Kanada.
    Håkanson, Cecilia
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Lunds universitet, Karolinska institutet .
    Alvariza, Anette
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Lunds universitet, Karolinska institutet .
    Fürst, Carl Johan
    Lunds universitet, Karolinska institutet .
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnéuniversitetet, Linköpings universitet.
    Sawatzky, Richard
    Kanada.
    Variations in care quality outcomes of dying people: Latent class analysis of an adult national register population.2017In: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, ISSN 0885-3924, E-ISSN 1873-6513, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 13-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CONTEXT: Symptom relief is a key goal of palliative care. There is a need to consider complexities in symptom relief patterns for groups of people in order to understand and evaluate symptom relief as an indicator of quality of care at end of life.

    OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to distinguish classes of patients who have different symptom relief patterns during the last week of life and to identify predictors of these classes in an adult register population.

    METHODS: In a cross-sectional retrospective design, data was used from 87,026 decedents with expected deaths registered in the Swedish Register of Palliative Care in 2011 and 2012. Study variables were structured into patient characteristics, and processes and outcomes of quality of care. A latent class analysis was used to identify symptom relief patterns. Multivariate multinomial regression analyses were used to identify predictors of class membership.

    RESULTS: Five latent classes were generated: "relieved pain", "relieved pain and rattles", "relieved pain and anxiety", "partly relieved shortness of breath, rattles and anxiety" and "partly relieved pain, anxiety and confusion". Important predictors of class membership were age, sex, cause of death, and having someone present at death, individual PRN prescriptions and expert consultations.

    CONCLUSION: Inter-individual variability and complexity in symptom relief patterns may inform quality of care and its evaluation for dying people across care settings.

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