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  • 1. Algers, Bo
    et al.
    Gunnarsson, StefanNordenfelt, LennartErsta Sköndal University College, Enheten för forskning i palliativ vård.
    Djuren är väl också människor: en antologi om hälsa och välbefinnande i djurens och människornas värld2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Dwyer, Lise-Lotte
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research. Örebro universitet.
    Andershed, Birgitta
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Ternestedt, Britt-Marie
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Dignity as experienced by nursing home staff2009In: International Journal of Older People Nursing, ISSN 1748-3735, E-ISSN 1748-3743, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 185-193Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Dwyer, Lise-Lotte
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Andershed, Birgitta
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Ternestedt, Britt-Marie
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Nursing home staff's reasoning about death and dyingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Dwyer, Lise-Lotte
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research. Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences. Örebro universitet.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet.
    Ternestedt, Britt-Marie
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Three nursing home residents speak about meaning at the end of life2008In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 97-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides a deeper understanding of how meaning can be created in everyday life at a nursing home. It is based on a primary study concerning dignity involving 12 older people living in two nursing homes in Sweden. A secondary analysis was carried out on data obtained from three of the primary participants interviewed over a period of time (18-24 months), with a total of 12 interviews carried out using an inductive hermeneutic approach. The study reveals that sources of meaning were created by having a sense of: physical capability, cognitive capability, being needed, and belonging. Meaning was created through inner dialogue, communication and relationships with others. A second finding is that the experience of meaning can sometimes be hard to realize.

  • 5.
    Franklin, Lise-Lotte
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Ternestedt, Britt-Marie
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences. Ersta Sköndal University College, Enheten för forskning i palliativ vård.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet.
    Views on dignity of elderly nursing home residents2006In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 130-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Discussion about a dignified death has almost exclusively been applied to palliative care and people dying of cancer. As populations are getting older in the western world and living with chronic illnesses affecting their everyday lives, it is relevant to broaden the definition of palliative care to include other groups of people. The aim of the study was to explore the views on dignity at the end of life of 12 elderly people living in two nursing homes in Sweden. A hermeneutic approach was used to interpret the material, which was gathered during semi-structured interviews. A total of 39 interviews were transcribed. The analysis revealed three themes: (1) the unrecognizable body; (2) fragility and dependency; and (3) inner strength and a sense of coherence.

  • 6.
    Hellström, Ingrid
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Nolan, Mike
    University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Enheten för forskning i palliativ vård.
    Lundh, Ulla
    Linköpings universitet.
    Ethical and methodological issues in interviewing persons with dementia2007In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 608-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People with dementia have previously not been active participantsin research, with ethical difficulties often being cited asthe reason for this. A wider inclusion of people with dementiain research raises several ethical and methodological challenges.This article adds to the emerging debate by reflecting on theethical and methodological issues raised during an interviewstudy involving people with dementia and their spouses. Thestudy sought to explore the impact of living with dementia.We argue that there is support for the inclusion of people withdementia in research and that the benefits of participationusually far outweigh the risks, particularly when a `safe context'has been created. The role of gatekeepers as potentially responsiblefor excluding people with dementia needs further consideration,with particular reference to the appropriateness of viewingconsent as a primarily cognitive, universalistic and exclusionaryevent as opposed to a more particularistic, inclusive and contextrelevant process.

  • 7.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Ersta Sköndal University College.
    A Defence of a Holistic Concept of Health2016In: Naturalism in the philosophy of health: issues and implications / [ed] Élodie Giroux, Springer Publishing Company, 2016, p. 209-225Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I argue for the need of a positive, value-oriented, concept of health. I call it a holistic concept in that it involves looking upon health as having to do with the person as a whole. It is the person as a whole who is healthy or ill. Ill health is here taken to be the opposite of health. A distinctive feature of holistic health is that it is not identical with the absence of diseases or injuries. A concept of this general kind exists already in many areas in society. The most notable exponent of such a concept is the World Health Organization in its many characterizations of health and related concepts. But holistic analyses of health are advocated also by significant representatives of health care and public health and indeed by many theorists of medicine and nursing. A problem with many of these analyses, however, is that they are not carefully formulated and not presented within a strict conceptual theory. I will argue that my own proposal for a theory of health can do much of the work required. The paper has the following structure. First, I take a stand with regard to conceptual analysis and its role in determining the adequacy of definitions of health. Second, I make a brief survey of crucial characterizations of holistic health, both in policy documents and in the scholarly literature. In many of these conceptions the person’s abilities and subjective experiences come to the fore. Third, I consider the use of the term health in the standard medical encounter and in the formulation of goals of medicine. Fourth, I scrutinize some arguments concerning priorities in medicine, where a holistic concept of health plays a crucial role. Finally, I will give a brief outline of my own conceptual theory of holistic health.

  • 8.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Vice-Chancellor's Office.
    A new stance on quality of life2018In: Routledge Handbook of Well-Being / [ed] Kathleen Galvin, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2018, 1 uppl, p. 163-172Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter considers the rationale for the introduction of the quality-of-life concept. Several factors have contributed to the ideological change. One of these factors is of course the technological development of medicine. Another crucial factor behind the medical discussion about quality of life was the anthropology adopted in much modern medicine. If one's life as a whole is characterized by the fact that one's most important goals are fulfilled or are in the process of becoming fulfilled, then this life is–with great probability–a life of great happiness. In public health and health care there is not only the ethical rule whereby staff shall seek to achieve the general objectives of care, health and health-related quality of life. Staff should of course show general compassion and attempt to reduce a person's suffering even if this has nothing directly to do with medicine or, in the strictest sense, nursing.

  • 9.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Enheten för forskning i palliativ vård.
    Action, ability, and health: essays in the philosophy of action and welfare2000Book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet.
    Animal and human health and welfare: a comparative philosophical analysis2006Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For many years, scientists within human and animal science have extensively studied the philosophy of medicine, but never have both sides communicated with each other on the concepts of health, quality of life and welfare. This book aims to help clarify the difficult but central notions of health and welfare by comparing the human and animal variants of these concepts. Split into three parts, this book starts by presenting a background of some of the major theories of human health and welfare, among these are bio-statistical theory, classical theories such as Aristotle and Bentham, as well as objectivist and subjectivist contemporary theories. This is followed by a detailed discussion of theories on animal welfare and health; these include coping, feeling and preference theories. The final part of the book tests a comprehensive conceptual framework of a holistic kind, which focuses on the individual's ability to achieve their vital goals. This book will be of significant interest to students, researchers and debaters of animal ethics and welfare.

  • 11.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Marie Cederschiöld University, Administration Department.
    Att upplösa etiska konflikter2022In: Etikarbete i vårdens vardag / [ed] Gunilla Silfverberg, Stockholm: Appell förlag , 2022, p. 47-63Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Enheten för forskning i palliativ vård.
    Begreppet arbetsförmåga2009In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 86, no 3, p. 220-228Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Enheten för forskning i palliativ vård.
    Begreppet värdighet2010In: Värdighet i vården av äldre personer / [ed] Lennart Nordenfelt, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB , 2010, 1, p. 63-103Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Enheten för forskning i palliativ vård.
    Dignity as an object of empirical study: experiences from two research programmes2009In: Dignity in care for older people / [ed] Lennart Nordenfelt, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell , 2009, p. 190-206Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Enheten för forskning i palliativ vård.
    Dignity in care for older people2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Enheten för forskning i palliativ vård.
    Health, autonomy and quality of life: some basic concepts in the theory of health care and the care of older people2009In: Dignity in care for older people / [ed] Lennart Nordenfelt, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell , 2009, p. 3-25Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Enheten för forskning i palliativ vård.
    Health, science, and ordinary language2001Book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Enheten för forskning i palliativ vård.
    Hemmets värden: om hälsa, livskvalitet och autonomi2007In: Hemmets vårdetik: om vård av äldre i livets slutskede / [ed] Gunilla Silfverberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2007, 1, p. 67-89Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Enheten för forskning i palliativ vård.
    Hälsa, autonomi och livskvalitet: några grundläggande begrepp2010In: Värdighet i vården av äldre personer / [ed] Lennart Nordenfelt, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB , 2010, 1, p. 29-61Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Enheten för forskning i palliativ vård.
    Hälsa som medicinens mål2008In: Vårdetisk spegel / [ed] Gunilla Silfverberg, Stockholm: Ersta Sköndal högskola , 2008, p. 30-49Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Palliative Research Centre, PRC.
    Konrad Marc-Wogau: en livsresa från Moskva till Uppsala2015Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Enheten för forskning i palliativ vård.
    Om mänsklig värdighet2007In: Hemmets vårdetik: om vård av äldre i livets slutskede / [ed] Gunilla Silfverberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2007, 1, p. 119-134Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences. Linköpings universitet.
    Om värdet av diakoni från en sekulär synvinkel2012In: Värdegrunder i kyrka, diakoni och samhälle / [ed] Gunilla Silfverberg, Stockholm: Ersta Sköndal högskola , 2012, p. 49-61Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Ersta Sköndal University College.
    On concepts of positive health2016In: Handbook of the philosophy of medicine / [ed] Thomas Schramme; Steven Edwards, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2016, p. 29-43Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents some main interpretations of the concept of health from antiquity until today. There is an emphasis on ideas of health as a positive notion, i.e., as something over and above the absence of disease. After giving a summary of some classic intuitions about health, the chapter concentrates on contemporary attempts to analyze health in terms of well-being and ability. Starting with the famous WHO definition of health, where health is understood as complete physical, mental, social, and spiritual well-being, the chapter turns to a presentation of some scholarly analyses of health, where health is mainly analyzed in ability terms. Examples are taken mainly from the philosophical literature but also from other disciplines. It is noted that almost all definitions in the nursing and feminist literature understand health in positive terms in contrast to such naturalist definitions as present health as merely the absence of disease. The chapter further contains a discussion of health as a culture-dependent notion and makes a comparison between the concepts of human and animal health.

  • 25.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Vice-Chancellor's Office.
    Psykisk hälsa hos människa och häst: ett klassiskt perspektiv2020In: Hästen och den mänskliga hälsan / [ed] Gunilla Silfverberg; Henrik Lerner, Stockholm: Appell förlag , 2020, 1 uppl, p. 152-173Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Enheten för forskning i palliativ vård.
    Rationality and compulsion: applying action theory to psychiatry2007Book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Sokrates i Uppsala: En bok om och av Thorild Dahlquist2017Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna bok ger Lennart Nordenfelt en bred redogörelse för Uppsalafilosofen Thorild Dahlquists (1920–2009) liv och gärning som filosof och opinionsbildare. Dahlquist hade en enastående ställning som lärare och forskarhandledare i Uppsala (delvis också i övriga Sverige) trots att han aldrig innehade någon officiell lärostol. Han tjänstgjorde som extralärare och forskarassistent på filosofiska institutionen vid Uppsala universitet i närmare 50 år. Dahlquist uppskattades mycket högt, som lärare, rådgivare och vän, av många årgångar elever liksom av kolleger vid universitetet och andra lärosäten. Dahlquists publikationer är dock fåtaliga och det är svårt att utifrån bilda sig en uppfattning om hans bidrag till svensk filosofi. Nordenfelts avsikt i denna bok är att, framför allt på basis av Dahlquists egna handskrivna texter, ge en så fyllig bild som möjligt av hans ställningstaganden i filosofiska men också politiska frågor. Dahlquist var en av de starkaste och tydligaste förkämparna för den analytiska, ”vetenskapliga”, filosofin i Sverige. I en tid då denna filosofi fått många konkurrenter på de europeiska, inklusive de svenska, universiteten kan det vara av vikt att påminna sig hur de bästa argumenten bakom den analytiska filosofin gestaltar sig. Thorild Dahlquist formulerade under sin levnad många av dessa argument.

  • 28.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Enheten för forskning i palliativ vård.
    The concept of dignity2009In: Dignity in care for older people / [ed] Lennart Nordenfelt, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell , 2009, p. 26-53Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Enheten för forskning i palliativ vård.
    The concept of work ability2008Book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Avdelningen för verksamhetsstöd.
    The concepts of dignity: an analysis2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article I provide an analysis of some salient concepts of dignity. The text is a development of a work which was initiated in the year 2000 in the research programme Dignity and Older Europeans (DOE) supported by the European Union.

    The programme was both theoretical and empirical. The empirical part, which was the most comprehensive, consisted of focus-group interviews with health care and social care personnel, elderly persons within health care or social care, and representatives from the general public. The interviews concerned the care of the elderly and attitudes towards the elderly. Some questions concerned how the interviewees conceived the concept of dignity and what they meant by behaviour respectful of dignity in the care of the elderly. Altogether around 1000 focus-group interviews were conducted in seven of the countries involved.

    The theoretical part of the programme consisted of an analysis of the concepts of dignity based on studies of dictionary entries in six languages (English, French, Spanish, Slovakish, Polish and Swedish) as well as previous philosophical analyses of the concept.

    In the theoretical part of the study there emerged four different concepts of dignity: dignity of merit, dignity of moral standing, dignity of identity and human dignity. Characterizations of these concepts have been presented and developed in several publications, for example Nordenfelt (2004) and (2009).

    In the present article this analysis is taken a step further. I take as a starting point some previous studies, including Schroeder (2008), Sulmasy (2013) and my earlier ones, and propose an improvement and clarification of my earlier classification of dignities. At the same time I enlarge the analysis to concern worths in general and how these are attached to entities in general, not just human beings. The four kinds of dignities which I now propose are called: attributed dignity, dignity of inflorescence, dignity of identity and human dignity.

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  • 31.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Enheten för forskning i palliativ vård.
    Värdighet i vården av äldre personer2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Enheten för forskning i palliativ vård.
    Värdighet som föremål för empiriska studier: erfarenheter från två forskningsprogram2010In: Värdighet i vården av äldre personer / [ed] Lennart Nordenfelt, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB , 2010, 1, p. 299-321Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Vice-Chancellor's Office.
    Är Gud annorlunda?2020 (ed. 1 uppl.)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Är Gud annorlunda? är en lärd och tankeväckande religionsfilosofisk essä om Gudsbgreppet, Guds existens och Guds väsen. Lennart Nordenfelt granskar flera viktiga religionskritiska argument, framförda av äldre teoretiker som Bertrand Russell och Ingemar Hedenius, men också några samtida debattörer som Richard Dawkins och Daniel Dennett.

    I bokens andra hälft ligger fokus på religionsteorier som avviker från de stora världsreligionernas uppfattningar. Författaren ställer sig till sist frågan: Hur kan en person med en ateistisk eller agnostisk uppfattning förhålla sig till de okonventionella teorierna?

  • 34.
    Pageau, Félix
    et al.
    Division of Geriatrics, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, Quebec City, Canada; Centre d'excellence en vieillissement de Québec, VITAM, Quebec City, Canada.
    Fiasse, Gaëlle
    Department of Philosophy, Joint Appointment With the School of Religious Studies, McGill University, Montreal, Canada; Department of Philosophy, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Marie Cederschiöld University, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Mihailov, Emilian
    Department of the History of Philosophy and Practical Philosophy, Research Center in Applied Ethics, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania.
    Care of the older person and the value of human dignity2024In: Bioethics, ISSN 0269-9702, E-ISSN 1467-8519, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 44-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the world population is rapidly aging, stakeholders must address the care of the elderly with great concern. Also, loss of dignity is often associated with aging due to dementia, mobility problems and diminished functional autonomy. However, dignity is a polysemic term that is deemed useless by some ethicists. To counter this claim, we propose four concepts to define it better and make use accurately of this notion. These are human dignity, dignity of identity, dignities of excellence and attributed dignities. Finally, we explain the importance of solicitude and human dignity in the care of the elderly. This will ensure the respect, friendship and dignity of the elderly in providing geriatric ethical care.

  • 35.
    Rejnö, Åsa
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst; Skaraborgs sjukhus Skövde.
    Ternestedt, Britt-Marie
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Vice-Chancellor's Office.
    Silfverberg, Gunilla
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Godskesen, Tove E.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences. Uppsala universitet.
    Dignity at stake: Caring for persons with impaired autonomy2020In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 104-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dignity, usually considered an essential ethical value in healthcare, is a relatively complex, multifaceted concept. However, healthcare professionals often have only a vague idea of what it means to respect dignity when providing care, especially for persons with impaired autonomy. This article focuses on two concepts of dignity, human dignity and dignity of identity, and aims to analyse how these concepts can be applied in the care for persons with impaired autonomy and in furthering the practice of respect and protection from harm. Three vignettes were designed to illustrate typical caring situations involving patients with mild to severely impaired autonomy, including patients with cognitive impairments. In situations like these, there is a risk of the patient’s dignity being disrespected and violated. The vignettes were then analysed with respect to the two concepts of dignity to find out whether this approach can illuminate what is at stake in these situations and to provide an understanding of which measures could safeguard the dignity of these patients. The analysis showed that there are profound ethical challenges in the daily care of persons with impaired autonomy. We suggest that these two concepts of human dignity could help guide healthcare professionals to develop practical skills in person-centred, ethically grounded care, where the patient’s wishes and needs are the starting point

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