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  • 1.
    Agnafors, Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköpings universitet.
    Ekselius, Lisa
    Uppsala universitet.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköpings universitet.
    Maternal temperament and character: associations to child behavior at the age of 3 years.2021Ingår i: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 15, nr 1, artikel-id 23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The influence of maternal temperament on child behavior, and whether maternal temperament impact boys and girls differently is not thoroughly studied. The aim was to investigate the impact of maternal temperament and character on child externalizing and internalizing problems at age 3.

    METHODS: A birth-cohort of 1723 mothers and their children were followed from birth to age 3. At the child's age of 3 months, the mothers filled out standardized instruments on their temperament and character using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and depressive symptoms using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). At the child's age of 3 years, the mothers reported on child behavior using the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL).

    RESULTS: Maternal temperamental trait novelty seeking was positively associated with externalizing problems in the total population and in girls. Harm avoidance was positively associated with externalizing problems in the total population and in boys, and with internalizing problems in the total population and boys and girls respectively. Maternal character traits of self-directedness and cooperativeness were negatively associated with both externalizing and internalizing problems in the total population and in boys and girls respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Maternal character traits were more influential on child behavior than were temperamental traits, and thus the opportunities for intervention targeted at parental support are good. Maternal mental health and socioeconomic aspects also increased the risk for child behavior problems, indicating the need for recognition and support in clinical settings.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Hedvig
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Aspeqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköpings universitet.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Marie Cederschiöld högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Jonsson, Linda S.
    Marie Cederschiöld högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Landberg, Åsa
    Marie Cederschiöld högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Zetterqvist, Maria
    Universitetssjukhuset i Linköping.
    Emotional Dysregulation and Trauma Symptoms Mediate the Relationship Between Childhood Abuse and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in Adolescents2022Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 13, artikel-id 897081Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is common in adolescents. Emotion dysregulation has been identified as a core mechanism in the development and maintenance of NSSI and it is therefore an important target when addressing NSSI. The pathogenic connection between different kinds of childhood abuse, difficulties in emotion regulation and NSSI needs further investigation. The objective of this study was to examine whether difficulties with emotion regulation and trauma symptoms, separately and together, mediate the relationships between sexual, physical and emotional abuse and NSSI.

    Method: Cross-sectional data was collected from 3,169 adolescent high-school students aged 16–19 years (M = 18.12, SD = 0.45). Data from self-reported experiences of childhood abuse, current difficulties with emotion regulation (measured with the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale, DERS-16) and trauma symptoms (measured with the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children, TSCC), and NSSI were collected. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to test the proposed relationships between variables.

    Results: The prevalence of life-time NSSI was 27.4%. Prevalence of reported childhood abuse was 9.2, 17.5, and 18.0% for sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, respectively. Childhood abuse, difficulties with emotion regulation and trauma symptoms exhibited significant positive associations with NSSI in adolescents. Emotional dysregulation and trauma symptoms were both found to mediate the relationship between childhood abuse and NSSI. Latent variable models were found to fit data well.

    Conclusion: Results indicate that increased levels of emotional dysregulation and trauma symptoms in relation to childhood abuse contribute to the increased risk of NSSI. Further, results point to some aspects of emotional dysregulation and trauma symptoms being more important in this regard. Clinical implications are discussed.

  • 3.
    Bladh, Marie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Marie Cederschiöld högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Agnafors, Sara
    Linköpings universitet.
    Predictors of educational failure at 16 and 19 years of age: SESBiC longitudinal study2023Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 18, nr 1, artikel-id e0279531Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Educational attainment is highly associated with future health and independence. Throughout childhood, children are exposed to factors that may promote educational attainment and factors that may be associated with a reduced likelihood of being able to complete their education. The purpose of the current study was to investigate which factors, measured from birth up to finishing upper secondary school, were associated with a lower mean grade point average from lower and upper secondary school as well as eligibility to upper secondary school and college/university.

    METHODS: This is a longitudinal study on 1723 children born in 1995/1996 who have been followed until they were 20 years old. Information with respect to maternal sociodemographics, maternal stress factors during pregnancy and childhood, birth characteristics of the child, child behavior at 3 and 12 years of age, and mean grade point average from lower and upper secondary school, including eligibility to upper secondary school and college/university was collected.

    RESULTS: Children exhibiting high problems scores on the child behavior checklist at 12 years of age and children or having other living arrangements (e.g. foster parents or institutional care) were less likely to fulfill the requirements for upper secondary school (OR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.17-0.71 and OR = 0.33 95% CI = 0.17-0.65, respectively). The likelihood of fulfilling the requirements to college/university was lower if the child had divorced parents at three years of age (OR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.16-0.58) and exhibited externalizing problems at 12 years of age (OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.24-0.86) and if the mother had experienced high level of stress at (OR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.14-0.77).

    CONCLUSION: Identifying mothers with high level of stressors as well as children with externalizing behaviour problems to provide guidance and support is very important as these two factors appear to be associated with future study performance in both lower and upper secondary school.

  • 4.
    Donevan, Meghan
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Jonsson, Linda
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköpings universitet.
    Priebe, Gisela
    Lunds universitet.
    Fredlund, Cecilia
    Linköpings universitet.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Adolescents' Use of Pornography: Trends over a Ten-year Period in Sweden2022Ingår i: Archives of Sexual Behavior, ISSN 0004-0002, E-ISSN 1573-2800, Vol. 51, nr 2, s. 1125-1140Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using survey data from three nationally representative surveys in 2004, 2009, and 2014 among senior high school students in Sweden, this study investigates trends in adolescents' lifetime prevalence of pornography use, frequency of pornography use, and type of pornography used over time. While almost all boys and a considerable proportion of girls used pornography across the three waves, the lifetime prevalence of pornography use decreased overall for both girls and boys. The share of boys who use pornography frequently increased over the three survey cycles; those who reported using pornography daily increased from 11% in 2004 to 24% in 2014. In contrast, there was no change in girls who reported using pornography daily, while the proportion who never used pornography increased from 40% in 2004 to 51% in 2014. Adolescents appear to use a narrower range of different pornography types over the survey cycles. Multiple logistic regression models were generated to investigate factors associated with pornography use over the 10-year period. The results suggest that rule-breaking behavior, having higher economic status and higher academic achievement were related to boy's pornography use, while rule-breaking behavior, early sexual debut and victimization were associated with girls' pornography use.

  • 5.
    Donevan, Meghan
    et al.
    Marie Cederschiöld högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Jonsson, Linda
    Marie Cederschiöld högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Marie Cederschiöld högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Osynliga brottsoffer: Intervjustudie bland personer som blivit filmade eller fotograferade för pornografiproduktion2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I december 2022 gavs forskare vid Marie Cederschiöld högskola i uppdrag av den statliga utredningen “Skydd, stöd och vård för personer som har utsatts för övergrepp vid produktion eller distribution av pornografi” (A 2022:02) att utföra en kvalitativ forskningsstudie riktad mot vuxna som blivit filmade eller fotograferade för pornografiproduktion.

    Syftet med studien var att få en djupare insikt i situationen för människor som förekommer i pornografi med fokus på utsattheten för våld och dess följder, samt behovet av och tillgängligheten till skydd, stöd och vård. Studien har främst en kvalitativ design, men innehåller även kvantitativa inslag.

    Metoden som användes innebar att deltagarna rekryterades via en annons, distribuerad genom sociala medier och på fysiska mottagningar med stöd av offentliga aktörer och ideella organisationer. Totalt intervjuades 26 personer mellan 26 mars och 19 juni 2023. Intervjun bestod av en kvantitativ enkät och en djupintervju som berörde ämnen som uppväxt, våldsutsatthet i samband med pornografi, hälsostatus, erfarenheter av att söka stöd och aktuella behov. Kvantitativ data bearbetades med deskriptiv statistik via SPSS, medan kvalitativ data analyserades genom reflexiv tematisk analys.

    Resultaten från enkätundersökningen visade att majoriteten av deltagarna var under 18 år då första inspelningen av pornografi gjordes och majoriteten hade erfarenheter av såväl olika former av traumatiska händelser under uppväxten som ogynnsamma uppväxtvillkor. Alla utom en hade erfarenheter av sexuella övergrepp under uppväxten. Majoriteten av deltagarna beskrev också i enkäten ett tvång och en våldsutsatthet under själva pornografiproduktionen. Deras hälsa präglades av långvarig psykisk ohälsa där ångest, depression, posttraumatiskt stressyndrom (PTSD) och dissociation var framträdande. De flesta hade någon gång blivit diagnosticerade med en eller flera psykiatriska diagnoser och varit i kontakt med många olika myndigheter/vårdgivare.

    Resultaten från djupintervjuerna strukturerades kring tre specifika faser i samband med pornografiproduktion: “In”, “Under” och “Ut”. Trots varierande erfarenheter kunde gemensamma faktorer identifieras som kollektivt bidrog till inträdet i pornografiproduktion. Bland dessa var systematiska svek, ofta manifesterade som försummelse och våldsutsatthet under uppväxten, där både vuxna och samhället svikit individen. En påtaglig känsla av ensamhet framhölls också som en drivande faktor, vilket ledde till att många kände sig tvungna att navigera sina sårbarheter på egen hand. Inträdet i pornografiproduktion representerade ofta en kamp för såväl ekonomisk som psykisk överlevnad.

    Fasen inne i pornografiproduktion präglades av fortsatt våld och en hög grad av utsatthet för olika typerav brott. Medverkan i egenproducerad eller studioproducerad pornografi framstod som en strävan efter kontroll efter att tidigare ha blivit berövade på makt och autonomi genom våldsutsatthet och exploatering. Berättelserna illustrerar nödvändigheten av att anta en roll när sexuella handlingar utförs mot ersättning, där individen agerar utifrån köparens förväntningar och krav. Samtliga deltagare uttryckte en rädsla för att hamna i det offentliga rummet till följd av materialets spridning—något som kändes oundvikligt. Denna rädsla var rotad i oron över att bli stämplade som mindre värd–”en hora”. Berättelserna belyser en process av normalisering och integrering av en negativ självbild, en konsekvens av upprepade svek och systematiskt våld.

    För de som blivit filmade eller fotograferade för pornografiproduktion under en längre tid, var resan “Ut” komplex och fylld med hinder och en hög risk för återfall. Intervjupersonerna lyfte ofta en specifik händelse som vändpunkten för att påbörja sin utgång, men många behöll en fot kvar i pornografiska sammanhang på grund av brist på alternativ och rätt stöd. Berättelserna understryker behovet av adekvat stöd och hjälp i form av professionella med kunskap och förståelse, behandling som adresserar grundorsakerna, insatser som fokuserar på individens komplexa behov, samt ett samhälle som tar våld på allvar. Framför allt handlade resan ut om att få omformulera jaget, från att ses som “en hora” som “får skyllasig själv” till att erkännas som ett brottsoffer.

    Deltagarna lyfte även fram viktiga medskick och råd till olika målgrupper. Till allmänheten underströk de behovet av förståelse och empati, grundad på en kunskap om verkligheten inom pornografiproduktionen snarare än föreställningar om “frivillighet”. Deltagarna ville förmedla till unga att trots den tillsynes lockande natur av plattformar som OnlyFans, är de negativa konsekvenserna aldrig värt det – och deras budskap är klart: gör inte det! Till konsumenter och köpare uppmanade deltagarna till att se bakom kameran, att förstå den mörka och skadliga industrin som deras konsumtion understöder. Och slutligen, för professionella, betonade de nödvändigheten av att fånga upp och ta ett helhetsgrepp, där effektiv screening, ett gott bemötande och hänvisning till specialiserad behandling blir nyckeln till resan ut ur pornografiproduktion.

    Avslutningsvis innehåller rapporten en diskussion med specifika rekommendationer om hur samhället kan stärka sitt skydd, stöd och vård för dessa osynliga brottsoffer, så att de får möjligheten att lämna våldets skugga bakom sig.

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  • 6.
    Hoffmann, Ulrike
    et al.
    University Hospital Ulm, Germany.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Marie Cederschiöld högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Anagnostopoulus, D
    National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece.
    Raynaud, J P
    Toulouse University Hospital, France.
    Räberg Christensen, A M
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Center, Denmark.
    Fegert, Jörg M
    University Hospital Ulm, Germany.
    Protection of patients against violence in medical institutions and the need for general safeguarding measures2022Ingår i: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 31, nr 9, s. 1337-1339Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 7.
    Kaldal, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Landberg, Åsa
    Stiftelsen Allmänna Barnhuset.
    Eriksson, Maria
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköpings universitet.
    Children's Right to Information in Barnahus2017Ingår i: Collaborating Against Child Abuse: Exploring the Nordic Barnahus Model / [ed] Susanna Johansson; Kari Stefansen; Elisiv Bakketeig; Anna Kaldal, Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, 1, s. 207-226Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The child’s right to information is part of the child’s fundamental human right of participation and access to justice according to the CRC. The child’s right to information is also stated in the Swedish national guidelines for Barnahus and in Swedish national law. The child´s right to information is, however, connected to both legal dilemmas and dilemmas in practice. In this chapter, we discuss children’s right to participation from a child rights perspective in a criminal investigation in Barnahus.

  • 8.
    Kvist, Therese
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet; Center for Paediatric Oral Health Research, Stockholm.
    Dahllöf, Göran
    Karolinska institutet; Center for Paediatric Oral Health Research, Stockholm; Center for Oral Health Services and Research, Trondheim, Norway.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Annerbäck, Eva-Maria
    Linköpings universitet; Centre for Clinical Research, Region Sörmland, Uppsala universitet.
    Child physical abuse, declining trend in prevalence over 10 years in Sweden2020Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 109, nr 7, s. 1400-1408Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To study trends in prevalence and risk factors of child physical abuse over 10 years in Sweden.

    METHODS: This study analysed responses from school surveys in 2008, 2011, 2014 and 2017 in Södermanland County, Sweden with average 5125 respondents per year, 15 and 17 years old. There were identical questions on exposure to violence and risk factors including parental employment, separated parents, disability or disease, foreign background and lack of adult support. Intimate partner violence was included at three occasions. Data were analysed with bi- and multivariate models, and mean of accumulated risks were compared.

    RESULTS: Child physical abuse decreased significantly between 2008 and 2017. Repeated abuse decreased to a less degree than abuse once. In bivariate analyses, the share of risk factors declined for those exposed to physical abuse. In multiple analyses, it was found significant associations with exposure. There was and a dose-relationship between numbers of accumulated risk categories and self-reported abuse.

    CONCLUSION: Exposure to child physical abuse decreased substantially between 2008 and 2017. However, prevalence of abuse is still unacceptable, and the finding that prevalence of the more severe forms of CPA decreased less during the same time, draws attention to the need of ongoing efforts.

  • 9.
    Landberg, Åsa
    et al.
    Rädda Barnen.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköpings universitet.
    Inuti ett barnahus: en kvalitetsgranskning av 23 svenska verksamheter2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 10.
    Landberg, Åsa
    et al.
    Marie Cederschiöld högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Marie Cederschiöld högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Jonsson, Linda
    Marie Cederschiöld högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Det gäller en av fyra: Fakta om barn, sexuella övergrepp och sexuell exploatering i Sverige 2020–20212022Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här skriften ger en kort sammanfattning av resultaten från den fjärde nationella studien på området ungdomars sexualitet och utsatthet för sexuella övergrepp och sexuell exploatering. Ett representativt urval av drygt 3 000 gymnasieelever har fått svara på frågor om sina erfarenheter av sexuella övergrepp och sexuell exploatering under uppväxten. Resultaten i den här skriften bygger på vad eleverna själva har valt att berätta. Undersökningen har genomförts av forskare från Marie Cederschiöld högskola på uppdrag av Stiftelsen Allmänna Barnhuset och har finansierats av regeringen. I studien uppgav var fjärde elev att de någon gång under sin uppväxt utsatts för någon form av sexuellt övergrepp. Sist undersökningen genomfördes 2014 var det var femte elev. Flickor var betydligt mer utsatta än pojkar, drygt var tredje flicka uppger att hon varit utsatt för övergrepp under sin uppväxt.

    Sexuella övergrepp kan och ska förebyggas, och det förebyggande arbetet behöver bygga på kunskaper och fakta.

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  • 11.
    Landberg, Åsa
    et al.
    Marie Cederschiöld högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Marie Cederschiöld högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Jonsson, Linda Sofia
    Marie Cederschiöld högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Patterns of disclosure and perceived societal responses after child sexual abuse2022Ingår i: International Journal of Child Abuse & Neglect, ISSN 0145-2134, E-ISSN 1873-7757, Vol. 134, artikel-id 105914Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Disclosure of child sexual abuse (CSA) is key for abused children to access help and to protect them and other children.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate patterns of disclosure of child sexual abuse and how children perceived responses from people they disclosed to.

    PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Data were collected online in classrooms and during home studies in a national probability-based sample of 3282 third-year students in Swedish high schools in 2020-2021 (the age of the students varied between 16 and 23 years (M = 18,2)).

    METHODS: Results are presented with frequencies (n) and percentages (%). Pearson's chi-squared test was used for comparisons between groups.

    RESULTS: First, a substantial share of abused girls and most abused boys had not yet told anyone about the abuse, leaving them unable to access protection or rehabilitation. Second, participants who had disclosed sexual abuse had most often turned to a peer, more rarely to an adult, and seldom to a professional or volunteer. Third, although the societal responses that the participants perceived were mixed, more severe abuse was associated with more negative societal responses. Fourth, most participants stated that they did not need any professional support. Fifth, among the minority who had sought help, half were satisfied and a third dissatisfied.

    CONCLUSIONS: Results showed that most children with experience of CSA did not have access to the protection, support, and rehabilitation that they have a right to. Preventive measures need to target children and young people, while societal responses after CSA, especially severe CSA, need to be improved.

  • 12.
    Nilsson, Doris
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Dävelid, Iza
    Linköpings universitet.
    Ledin, Sara
    Linköpings universitet.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Psychometric properties of the Child and Adolescent Trauma Screen (CATS) in a sample of Swedish children2021Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 75, nr 4, s. 247-256Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometrics of the Swedish version of the Child and Adolescent Trauma Screen (CATS). This was to obtain access to an international instrument to identify symptoms of post-traumatic stress in children and adolescents according to the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5).

    METHOD: A total of 591 young Swedish schoolchildren aged 13-17 years old were given the CATS together with the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC), and the Linköping Youth Life Experience Scale (LYLES-Y). A clinical group of 42 children who had experienced a potential trauma was also given the same questionnaires. Statistical analyses were carried out for the purpose of reliability, different kinds of validity, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) concerning the construct of the CATS.

    RESULTS: The CATS showed good internal consistency on all four subscales from α = 0.73-0.89 and moderate stability (intra class correlation [ICC] = 0.57-68). The four-factor model for PTSD indicated good fit, reliability, and convergent validity. The CATS correlated strongly with the PTSD subscale on the TSCC (r = 0.82) and there were significant differences between the nonclinical and clinical groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study shows that the Swedish translation of CATS has satisfactory psychometric properties, including acceptable sensitivity and specificity. The CATS could therefore be used as a screening tool both outside and within a clinical setting.

  • 13.
    Nilsson, Doris
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Marie Cederschiöld högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Hall, Frida
    Linköpings universitet.
    Kazemi, Emelie
    Linköpings universitet.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköpings universitet.
    Psychometric properties of the Adolescent Resilience Questionnaire (ARQ) in a sample of Swedish adolescents2022Ingår i: BMC Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 22, nr 1, artikel-id 468Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The importance of resilience, and interest in it, has increased markedly in recent years, based on the need to understand why some children and young people have a resilience to stress that others lack. At the same time, there has been a lack of instruments to measure resilience. The aim of this study was to translate the Adolescent Resilience Questionnaire (ARQ) into Swedish and investigate the psychometrics of this Swedish version.

    METHODS: A normative sample of 616 students aged 15-17 was recruited through the school system in five different communities. Students filled out a digitalised composite form consisting of ARQ and three other standardised questionnaires, the Sense of Coherence Scale-13 (Soc-13), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ).

    RESULTS: The ARQ, with five domains and twelve subscales, showed good alpha coefficients α = .95 for the total scale and subscales ranging between α = .70 to .91, except for the subscales Emotional insight (α = 0.69) and Empathy/Tolerance (α = .61). The convergent validity, which was tested for the first time in this study, was good, especially with the Internal Domain for both SOC-13 and RSES. The confirmatory factor analysis showed a satisfactory construct validity. Finally, some gender differences were seen, with boys scoring higher on the total ARQ scale.

    CONCLUSION: The study shows that the Swedish translation of ARQ has satisfactory psychometric properties. The ARQ could therefore be used as a tool for adolescents when evaluating the importance of resilience.

  • 14.
    Nilsson, Doris
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Marie Cederschiöld högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Linköpings universitet.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Resilience in Swedish adolescents: Does resilience moderate the relationship between trauma experience and trauma symptoms?2023Ingår i: Psychological Trauma, ISSN 1942-9681, E-ISSN 1942-969X, Vol. 15 (Suppl 1), s. S125-S134Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research shows child abuse to be devastating for psychological health, but children and adolescents display varying reactions from maltreatment. Resilience is known as a protective factor, but sparse research is conducted on adolescents or assess resilience with consideration of ecological theories. Adolescent Resilience Questionnaire (ARQ) was developed to assess the five dimensions: Individual, Family, Peers, School, and Community and covers the broader ecological resilience spectrum.

    Objective: As resilience is a part of the human being survival system we wanted to investigate if resilience measured with ARQ, could moderate associations between experiences of trauma and trauma symptoms.

    Method: Six hundred fifty adolescents between 15 and 17 years old were asked to complete the Linkoping Youth Life Experience Scale (LYLES), the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC), and the Adolescent Resilience Questionnaire (ARQ).

    Result: The results showed that high scores on any dimension of the ARQ were negatively associated with trauma symptoms and that the dimension Peers moderated the effect of trauma symptoms on both interpersonal traumatic events and adverse childhood circumstances for males. The dimension Family moderated the effect of trauma symptoms on noninterpersonal traumatic events for females.

    Conclusion: Resilience seems to be an important factor when it comes to evaluating posttraumatic symptoms and that different resilience factors have different meanings for different types of traumas as well for boys and girls.

  • 15.
    Rajan, Gita
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet; Akademiskt primärvårdscentrum, Stockholm.
    Syding, Sanna
    Karolinska institutet.
    Ljunggren, Gunnar
    Karolinska institutet; Akademiskt primärvårdscentrum, Stockholm.
    Wändell, Per
    Karolinska institutet.
    Wahlström, Lars
    Karolinska institutet.
    Philips, Björn
    Stockholms universitet.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Carlsson, Axel C
    Karolinska institutet.
    Health care consumption and psychiatric diagnoses among adolescent girls 1 and 2 years after a first-time registered child sexual abuse experience: A cohort study in the Stockholm Region2021Ingår i: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 30, nr 11, s. 1803-1811Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a crime against human rights with severe health consequences, and suicidal actions, stress, eating disorders, and borderline disorder are common among survivors of CSA. The objective of this study was to analyze how health care consumption patterns developed among adolescent girls in the Stockholm Region, Sweden, 1 and 2 years after the first registration of CSA experience appeared in their medical record, as compared to age-matched controls without such registration. In this cohort study, number of healthcare visits, comorbidities, and prescribed drugs were collected through the Stockholm Region administrative database (VAL), for girls age 12-17 with registration of CSA experience in their medical record (n = 519) and age-matched controls (n = 4920) between 2011 and 2018. Healthcare consumption patterns remained higher among the girls with a registered CSA experience compared to the controls, both 1 and 2 years after the first CSA experience registration. Highest odds ratios (ORs) were found for suicide attempts [OR 26.38 (12.65-55.02) and 6.93 (3.48-13.49)]; stress disorders [25.97 (17.42-38.69) and 15.63 (9.82-24.88)]; psychosis [OR 19.39 (1.75-214.13) and 9.70 (1.36-68.95)], and alcohol abuse [OR 10.32 (6.48-16.44) and 6.09 (1.98-18.67)], 1 and 2 years, respectively, after the first CSA experience registration. The drug prescriptions were also significantly higher among the girls with a CSA experience registration than for the controls. The results highlight the need to systematically evaluate and develop assessment, treatment planning, and interventions offered to adolescent girls after their first CSA experience registration.

  • 16.
    Rajan, Gita
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet; Akademiskt primärvårdscentrum, Stockholms läns sjukvårdsområde.
    Wachtler, Caroline
    Karolinska institutet.
    Lee, Sara
    Svenska kognitiva institutet.
    Wändell, Per
    Karolinska institutet.
    Philips, Björn
    Stockholms universitet.
    Wahlström, Lars
    Karolinska institutet.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Carlsson, Axel C.
    Karolinska institutet; Akademiskt primärvårdscentrum, Stockholms läns sjukvårdsområde.
    A One-Session Treatment of PTSD After Single Sexual Assault Trauma. A Pilot Study of the WONSA MLI Project: A Randomized Controlled Trial2022Ingår i: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 37, nr 9-10, s. NP6582-NP6603Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual abuse is a crime with devastating health consequences. Accessible, acceptable and affordable treatment of PTSD after sexual abuse is important. In this pilot study, a one-session PTSD treatment and a modified perspective to PTSD treatment is introduced. The aim of the study was to test the efficacy of one session of Modified Lifespan Integration (MLI) on reduction of symptoms of PTSD in individuals with PTSD after one sexual assault. This was a single-center, individually randomized waitlist-controlled treatment study with 1:1 allocation, with the intervention of one 90 - 140 minutes session of MLI and with post-treatment follow-up at 3 weeks (time point two). All participants were females, mean age 24, with PTSD symptoms after one sexual assault during the past 5 years. Exclusion criteria were poor understanding of Swedish, multiple traumas, active substance abuse, active psychosis, ADHD, or autism spectrum disorder. Of 135 interested participants, 38 were finally included, 36 completed baseline measures and were included in the intent to treat analyses and 33 were analyzed per protocol. The primary outcome was the difference between the two trial arms in mean PTSD symptoms as measured by the Impact of Event Scale Revised (IES-R) at time point two. In the intervention arm, 72% no longer scored PTSD in per-protocol analysis, compared to 6% in the waiting list arm. IES-R scores were on average halved in the intervention arm (F=21.37, P<0.001), but were essentially unchanged in the waiting list arm. No adverse effects or drop-outs were seen. One session of Modified Lifespan Integration was an effective treatment with a low drop-out rate for females aged 15-65 with PTSD after one sexual assault. Provided that this result can be replicated, MLI should be offered to these patients in clinical settings. Registration number NCT03141047 was given 03/25/2016 at ClinicalTrials.gov (https://register.clinicaltrials.gov/).

  • 17.
    Rajan, Gita
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Wahlström, Lars
    Karolinska institutet.
    Philips, Björn
    Stockholms universitet.
    Wändell, Per
    Karolinska institutet.
    Wachtler, Caroline
    Karolinska institutet.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Carlsson, Axel C.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Delayed healthcare access among victims of sexual abuse, understood through internal and external gatekeeping mechanisms2021Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 75, nr 5, s. 370-377Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Sexual abuse is associated with severe health consequences, and the European Union has, through the Istanbul Convention, urged its member countries to provide specialist care for victims of sexual abuse.

    AIM: This aim of this study was to investigate patient- and abuse-related characteristics among patients seeking help at a specialist clinic in Sweden, with focus on disclosure, mental health and appropriate healthcare access.

    METHODS: This is a descriptive study where journal data from 100 consecutive patients January 2017 to February 2018 were analyzed. All adult individuals (women n = 80, men n = 8) who had taken part in the standardized semi-structured intake interview at the clinic were included (n = 88).

    RESULTS: At admission, mean age was 40.3 (SD 11.9), mean number of psychiatric diagnoses 6.3 (2.6), and 93% of the patients scored above cut-off (≥34) on IES-R for PTSD. A majority of the patients (87%) had been exposed to childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and mean time to first disclosure was 15.9 (SD 15.3) years. In total, 82% of the patients had, despite disclosure, experienced difficulties accessing appropriate healthcare before coming to the specialist clinic.

    CONCLUSION: Adult victims of sexual abuse have difficulties accessing appropriate healthcare. This constitutes a gender-based equality problem. A model of gatekeeping mechanisms with two dimensions (external and internal) and three categories (Competence related, Organizational and Emotional) is proposed to understand these difficulties.

  • 18.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Barnmisshandel - ett samhällsproblem: Vad vet vi och vad behöver göras?2020Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I föredraget ger Carl Göran Svedin gör en kort översikt över kunskapsläget om olika former av barnmisshandel, som sexuella övergrepp, fysisk barnmisshandel, upplevt våld i familjen samt omsorgssvikt, både när det gäller förekomst, konsekvenser och brister i samhällets stöd i form av upptäckt, stöd och behandling. Han diskuterar också vilka steg som nu behöver tas för att bättre hantera barnmisshandel som samhällsproblem. 

  • 19.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    et al.
    Marie Cederschiöld högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Donevan, Meghan
    Marie Cederschiöld högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköpings universitet.
    Priebe, Gisela
    Lunds universitet; Karlstads universitet.
    Fredlund, Cecilia
    Linköpings universitet.
    Jonsson, Linda Sofia
    Marie Cederschiöld högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Associations between adolescents watching pornography and poor mental health in three Swedish surveys2023Ingår i: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 32, s. 1765-1780Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between watching pornography and poor mental health in three repeated cross-sectional surveys in Sweden (2004, 2009, 2014) among high school seniors (13,277 students) with an average age of 18 years. The same index questions concerning ever having watched pornography and the frequency of watching pornography during the last year were combined with three different measures of psychological health and background control variables in multiple logistic regression and forward stepwise logistic regression models. The repeated cross-sectional surveys did not find any consistent associations across years between poor mental health and ever having watched pornography or the frequency of watching pornography. Having watched deviant pornography (containing violence, children and/or animals) was associated with poor mental health among boys in two surveys but only in one survey among girls. Other characteristics, such as mother's unemployment (especially boys), parenting style (especially high controlling parents among boys) and experiences of sexual abuse (especially penetrating abuse among girls), were more consistently and strongly associated to poor mental health across the three surveys. This study stresses the importance of controlling for multiple background variables when studying the association between watching pornography and mental health, since the association might primarily be explained by underlying confounding variables.

  • 20.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    et al.
    Marie Cederschiöld högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Jonsson, Linda
    Marie Cederschiöld högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Landberg, Åsa
    Stiftelsen Allmänna Barnhuset.
    Erfarenheter av våld och övergrepp bland barn och unga med funktionsnedsättning2024Ingår i: Fråga, lyssna och förstå: Om att motverka våld mot barn med funktionsnedsättning, Myndigheten för delaktighet , 2024, s. 36-45Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med utgångspunkt i svensk forskning beskriver Svedin, Johansson och Landberg erfarenheter av utsatthet för olika former av våld och sambandet mellan våld och psykisk ohälsa bland ungdomar med funktionsnedsättningar. Författarna beskriver att barn och unga med någon form av funktionsnedsättning löper en fördubblad risk för att bli utsatta för våld. Det gäller framförallt ungdomar med neuropsykiatriska och andra psykiatriska tillstånd. Risken för utsatthet ökar även med antalet funktionsnedsättningar. Författarna resonerar kring hur utsattheten kan förstås och vad som behöver göras för att motverka sårbarheten för våld och övergrepp bland barn och unga med funktionsnedsättning. De menar bland annat att det behövs ökad medvetenhet och kunskap, engagemang och samtal om våld samt information som anpassas till barn och unga med funktionsnedsättning.

  • 21.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    et al.
    Marie Cederschiöld högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Landberg, Åsa
    Marie Cederschiöld högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Jonsson, Linda
    Marie Cederschiöld högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Mer utsatta än andra – om våld och övergrepp mot barn med funktionsnedsättningar: En fördjupning från studien "Unga, sex och internet efter #metoo"2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Våld mot barn är ett allvarligt samhällsproblem och en rättighetskränkning som alltför många barn i Sverige har erfarenhet av. I den här rapporten belyser vi den särskilda utsatthet för våld som drabbar barn och ungdomar med funktionsnedsättning inklusive kronisk sjukdom. Målgruppen för rapporten är yrkesverksamma och beslutsfattare inom alla olika samhällsområden som rör barn och unga.

    Vi har låtit ett nationellt representativt urval av 3 268 elever i årskurs tre på gymnasiet svara anonymt på en enkät vilket ger en bild av deras erfarenheter av sexuella övergrepp och andra former av våld under hela uppväxten. Materialet samlades in under tiden december 2019 till mars 2021. Undersökningen har genomförts av forskare från Marie Cederschiöld högskola på uppdrag av Stiftelsen Allmänna Barnhuset och har finansierats av regeringen.

    Studien visar att funktionsnedsättning närmast fördubblade sannolikheten för att ha blivit mobbad, psykiskt misshandlad, fysiskt misshandlad eller att ha blivit utsatt för sexuella övergrepp. Det mer än fördubblade risken att ha blivit utsatt för sexuell exploatering. Ungdomar med neuropsykiatriska eller psykiatriska tillstånd var särskilt utsatta.

  • 22.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Landberg, Åsa
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Jonsson, Linda
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Unga, sex och internet efter #metoo: Om ungdomars sexualitet och utsatthet för sexuella övergrepp och sexuell exploatering i Sverige 2020/20212021Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten beskriver resultaten från den fjärde nationella studien på området ungdomars sexualitet och utsatthet för sexuella övergrepp och sexuell exploatering. Gymnasielever har fått svara på frågor om utsatthet under hela uppväxten. Genom att ställa samma frågor i upprepade undersökningar går det att följa utvecklingen över tid. I studien uppgav var fjärde elev att de någon gång under sin uppväxt utsatts för någon form av sexuellt övergrepp. Sist undersökningen genomfördes 2014 var det var femte elev. Flickor var betydligt mer utsatta än pojkar, drygt var tredje flicka uppger att hon varit utsatt för övergrepp under sin uppväxt.

    Det är liksom i tidigare undersökningar tydligt att det främst är jämnåriga som tar emot förtroenden från de som utsatts för sexuella övergrepp. Att de jämnåriga sällan för det de fått höra vidare är tydligt, men detsamma tycks gälla även för till exempel föräldrar eller vuxna professionella, eftersom endast en liten andel av övergreppen var anmälda till polis eller socialtjänst.

    Eftersom så få utsatta barn kommer till myndigheternas kännedom är det unikt att få ta del av erfarenheterna även från de ungdomar som ännu inte berättat för vuxna eller för professionella. Resultaten i rapporten kan användas som underlag i alla verksamheter som möter barn och unga, både för att förebygga utsatthet och för att ge de barn och unga som redan utsatts stöd, rehabilitering och skydd.

  • 23.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköpings universitet.
    Fagher, Kristina
    Linköpings universitet; Lunds universitet.
    Adami, Paolo Emilio
    World Athletics, Monaco; University of Rome, Italy.
    Andersson, Christer
    Linköpings universitet.
    Jacobsson, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Marie Cederschiöld högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap. Linköpings universitet.
    Bermon, Stéphane
    World Athletics, Monaco; Université Côte d'Azur, France.
    Vulnerability and stressors on the pathway to depression in a global cohort of young athletics (track and field) athletes2022Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, nr 1, artikel-id 7901Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This research set out to identify pathways from vulnerability and stressors to depression in a global population of young athletes. Retrospective data were collected at age 18-19 years from Athletics athletes (n = 1322) originating from Africa, Asia, Europe, Oceania, and the Americas. We hypothesised that sports-related and non-sports-related stressors in interaction with structural vulnerability instigate depression. Path modelling using Maximum likelihood estimation was employed for the data analysis. Depression caseness and predisposition were determined using the WHO-5 instrument. Thirty-six percent of the athletes (n = 480) returned complete data. Eighteen percent of the athletes reported lifetime physical abuse, while 11% reported sexual abuse. Forty-five percent of the athletes had recently sustained an injury. The prevalence of depression caseness was 5.6%. Pathways to depression caseness were observed from female sex (p = 0.037) and injury history (p = 0.035) and to predisposition for depression also through exposure to a patriarchal society (p = 0.046) and physical abuse (p < 0.001). We conclude that depression in a global population of young athletes was as prevalent as previously reported from general populations, and that universal mental health promotion in youth sports should include provision of equal opportunities for female and male participants, injury prevention, and interventions for abuse prevention and victim support.

  • 24.
    Tordön, Rikard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköpings universitet.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköpings universitet.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Improved Intelligence, Literacy and Mathematic Skills Following School-Based Intervention for Children in Foster Care2020Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 11, s. 1-11, artikel-id 718Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Interventions aimed at improving school performance for children in foster care are few and are generally not implemented. By preventing failure in school, the prospect of reducing the risk for future poor health, substance abuse, unemployment, and other detrimental social conditions are met. This paper focuses on the change of preconditions for compulsory school performance in out-of-home care children, following an intervention called “Skolfam” that aims to improve school performance by individual assessments and school-based interventions. In this study, data were compiled from prospective repeated tests of 475 children in foster care in Sweden. Educational preconditions were analysed for compulsory school performance, such as intelligence (WISC-IV), psychosocial (SDQ) and adaptive behavior (ABAS-II), literacy (Reading Chains) and mathematical skills (Magne Mathematic Diagnoses) before and after the first 2 years of the “Skolfam” intervention. All tests were age-standardized and performed by experienced professionals. The results showed improved skills in complex aspects of literacy, mathematics, and cognitive performance, but no improvement in less complex literacy skills, adaptive behavior or mental health symptoms. In conclusion, higher-order cognitive functions can develop positively when appropriate school support is provided. Affective function, adaptive behavior, and psychosocial well-being present a more pervasive challenge for children in foster care. Implications for future research, practice in social services, and school is that further development of methods to aid future prospects for children in out-of-home care should aim to improve both cognitive higher-order executive-, and affective functions.

  • 25.
    Zetterqvist, Maria
    et al.
    Region Östergötland; Linköpings universitet.
    Jonsson, Linda
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Landberg, Åsa
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap. Stiftelsen Allmänna Barnhuset.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    A potential increase in adolescent nonsuicidal self-injury during covid-19: A comparison of data from three different time points during 2011 - 2021.2021Ingår i: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 305, artikel-id 114208Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Life-time prevalence of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has consistently been found to be around 17% in community samples of adolescents. Concerns of threats to mental health in adolescents during covid-19 have been raised. Life-time prevalence of NSSI in high school students in Sweden was compared using the same item to assess NSSI at three different time points. Results showed very similar prevalence of NSSI in 2011 and 2014 (17.2 % vs. 17.7 %), and an increase to 27.6 % during the pandemic of 2020-2021. Our findings imply a need to highlight the potential psychosocial consequences of covid-19 for young people.

  • 26.
    Zetterqvist, Maria
    et al.
    Region Östergötland; Linköpings universitet.
    Landberg, Åsa
    Marie Cederschiöld högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Jonsson, Linda
    Marie Cederschiöld högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Marie Cederschiöld högskola, Institutionen för socialvetenskap.
    The psychosocial consequences of covid-19 in adolescents with nonsuicidal self-injury2023Ingår i: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 17, nr 1, artikel-id 33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Young people have been especially affected by the psychosocial consequences of the covid-19 pandemic. Covid-19 has potentially also been more stressful for vulnerable groups with mental health problems.

    METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, the psychosocial effects of covid-19 in a vulnerable group of adolescents with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) from a sample of 1602 Swedish high-school students were examined. Data were collected in 2020 and 2021. First, adolescents with and without NSSI were compared on how they perceived the psychosocial impact of covid-19, and second, a hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to examine whether lifetime NSSI experience was associated with perceived psychosocial consequences of covid-19, when demographic variables and symptoms of mental health problems were controlled for. Interaction effects were also examined.

    RESULTS: Significantly more individuals with NSSI reported being burdened by covid-19 compared to those without NSSI. When demographic variables and mental health symptoms were controlled for, adding NSSI experience did not, however, increase the amount of variance explained in the model. The total model explained 23.2% of the variance in perceived psychosocial impact of covid-19. Perceiving the family's financial situation as poor and neither good nor bad, studying a theoretical high school program, symptoms of depression and difficulties with emotion regulation were significantly associated with perceived negative psychosocial impact of the covid-19 pandemic. There was a significant interaction effect between NSSI experience and depressive symptoms. The effect of NSSI experience was larger when depressive symptoms were lower.

    CONCLUSIONS: Lifetime NSSI experience in itself was not associated with psychosocial covid-19 consequences when other variables were controlled for, whereas symptoms of depression and difficulties with emotion regulation were. Results imply that vulnerable adolescents with mental health symptoms need special attention and access to mental health support in order to prevent further stress and worsening of mental health symptoms in the wake of the covid-19 pandemic.

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