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  • 1.
    Abdelzadeh, Ali
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Amnå, Erik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Lundberg, Erik
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    En arena för tillit och tolerans?2016In: Föreningen, jaget och laget: 7 perspektiv påmidrotrens  demokratiska effekter, Stockholm: Centrum för idrottsforskning , 2016, p. 27-46Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Abdelzadeh, Ali
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Lundberg, Erik
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Social Sciences.
    Solid or Flexible?: Social Trust from Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood2017In: Scandinavian Political Studies, ISSN 0080-6757, E-ISSN 1467-9477, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 207-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The belief that people are generally fair and trustworthy has generated plenty of scholarly attention in recent decades, particularly in the Scandinavian countries, which are often known for high levels of social trust. This article draws attention to the current discussion in the literature on whether social trust is a stable cultural trait marked by persistence or is based on experiences and subject to change throughout life. Based on unique longitudinal data from five different cohorts of young people in Sweden, ranging in age from 13 to 28 years, this article provides an empirical contribution on how social trust develops over time. The results show that there is a greater degree of instability in social trust between 13 and 15 years of age than in other age groups, and that social trust appears to stabilize with age. Findings also indicate that there are substantial inter-individual differences in social trust among young people within the same age group, both in initial levels and in the rates of change over time. The article concludes that although social trust is relatively stable it tends to crystallize in early adulthood, highlighting the relevance of the impressionable-years hypothesis.

  • 3.
    Abdelzadeh, Ali
    et al.
    Myndigheten för ungdoms- och civilsamhällesfrågor (MUCF).
    Lundberg, Erik
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Social Sciences. Forum för levande historia.
    Tolerance and other citizen competencies2017In: Mechanisms of tolerance: an anthology / [ed] Erik Lundberg, Stockholm: Forum för levande historia , 2017, p. 149-176Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Abdelzadeh, Ali
    et al.
    MUCF - Myndigheten för ungdoms- och civilsamhällesfrågor.
    Lundberg, Erik
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Social Sciences.
    Tolerans och andra medborgarkompetenser2017In: Toleransens mekanismer: En antologi / [ed] Lundberg, Erik, Stockholm: Forum för levande historia , 2017, p. 145-170Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Hellberg, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro universitet.
    Karlsson, MartinÖrebro universitet, Akademin för humaniora, utbildning och samhällsvetenskap.Larsson, HannuÖrebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro universitet.Lundberg, ErikÖrebro universitet, Akademin för humaniora, utbildning och samhällsvetenskap.Persson, MonikaÖrebro universitet, Akademin för humaniora, utbildning och samhällsvetenskap.
    Perspektiv på offentlig verksamhet i utveckling: tolv kapitel om demokrati, styrning och effektivitet2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Perspektiv på offentlig verksamhet i utveckling - Tolv kapitel om demokrati, styrning och effektivitet samlar texter från doktorander och forskare knutna till Forskarskolan Offentlig verksamhet i utveckling (FOVU) vid Örebro Universitet. Antologin erbjuder en mångdisciplinär och omfångsrik behandling av en rad viktiga utmaningar för dagens offentlig verksamhet. I boken behandlas ämnen som korruption, jämställdhet, trygghet, medborgardialog, sjukskrivning och högerextremism. Målsättningen med boken är att skapa en bro mellan inomvetenskapliga debatter, offentlig praktik och politik. Här erbjuds kortare texter som på ett överskådligt sätt angriper praktikrelevanta ämnen utan att göra avkall på den vetenskapliga kvaliteten. Vissa texter erbjuder forskningsöversikter och reder ut oklarheter i teoretiska debatter, medan andra presenterar resultat av empirisk forskning.

  • 6.
    Hysing, Erik
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Lundberg, Erik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Making governance networks more democratic: lessons from the Swedish governmental commissions2016In: Critical Policy Studies, ISSN 1946-0171, E-ISSN 1946-018X, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 21-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Governance networks (GNs) are theorized as institutions for state–civil society interaction with important merits as well as shortcomings for effective and democratic governance. Here we compare GNs with a far less researched type of state–civil society interaction, the Swedish governmental commission (GC), critically discussing them in terms of organizational and functional features, the role of the state and democratic anchorage. Drawing on lessons from the institutional design of GCs, we contest the notion that well-functioning GNs require a low level of formal institutionalization and discuss how democratic problems with GNs could be addressed through a formal institutional framework that provides pre-established and generally applied ground rules, ensures elected politicians the final say on policy, and values broad participation and consultation. Recognizing that GNs are not a self-evident form for state–civil society interactions, traditional institutional designs should be more fully considered in the discussion and theorization of the democratic anchorage of GNs.

  • 7.
    Karlsson, Martin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Lundberg, Erik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    I betraktarens ögon: betydelsen av kön och ålder för studenters läraromdömen2012In: Högre Utbildning, ISSN 2000-7558, E-ISSN 2000-7558, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 19-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under senare år har studenters läraromdömen allt mer hamnat i fokus inom skola såväl som högre utbildning. Parallellt med dessa utvecklingar har olika typer av internettjänster genom vilka studenter kan betygsätta sina lärare dykt upp i flera länder. I Sverige lanserades 2008 tjänsten ”Studenter tycker till” (STT) där studenter kan registrera sig och fylla i bedömningar av lärare enligt kriterierna utlärningsförmåga, kunskap, engagemang och lärandestöd. I denna studie undersöks betydelsen av lärarens kön och ålder för studenters läraromdömen genom en kvantitativ analys av omdömen av 98 högskole- och universitetslärare som givits på hemsidan STT. Syftet är att synliggöra hur sociala markörer, i detta fall om läraren är man eller kvinna, ung eller gammal, spelar en stor roll för hur en lärare utvärderas. Resultaten visar att kvinnor och unga lärare systematiskt ges lägre betyg av studenter, än män och äldre lärare. Studenter är således inte könsblinda eller oberoende av föreställningar om förhållandet mellan ålder och kompetens i sina bedömningar. Studien aktualiserar betydelsen av sociala markörer så som kön och ålder måste synliggöras och tas i beaktning när studenters utvärderingar av lärare och kurser behandlas inom högre utbildning.

  • 8.
    Karlsson, Martin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Lundberg, Erik
    Örebro universitet.
    Mot medlemslösa partier: Partiföreträdare om orsaker, konsekvenser och strategier kring en svikande medlemskår2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Karlsson, Martin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Lundberg, Erik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Motstrategier eller undanmanövrar?: Svenska partiorganisationer i skuggan av en negativ medlemsutveckling2013In: Offentlig Förvaltning. Scandinavian Journal of Public Administration, ISSN 2000-8058, E-ISSN 2001-3310, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 49-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Från år 1979 fram till idag har de politiska partierna sammanlagt förlorat mer än 80 procent av sina medlemmar. Den här uppsatsen undersöker de svenska partiorganisationernas strategier och agerande i skuggan av de senaste decenniernas sjunkande medlemstal. Detta görs genom att undersöka: 1) Hur ledande partiföreträdare förhåller sig till partiernas medlemsutveckling; 2) På vilket sätt och i vilken utsträckning ledande partiföreträdare anser att partierna har anpassats för att hantera rekryteringsfunktionen respektive aggregeringsfunktionen i en situation med minskande medlemsorganisationer samt 3) Om det finns det några skillnader när det gäller hur ledande partiföreträdare förhåller sig till medlemsminskningen och hur dessa i sådana fall kan förstås. Uppsatsen visar att medlemsrekrytering inte tycks vara någon särskilt prioriterad fråga för något av partierna. Partiföreträdarena menar att medlemsutvecklingen inte har föranlett några stora och mer genomgripande förändringar av partiernas organisation i syfte att stärka eller utveckla partiernas aggregeringskanaler. Analysen visar vidare att det finns en insikt bland alla partiföreträdare om svårigheten när det gäller hur partierna ska klara försörjningen av framtidens förtroendevalda men att några mer genomgripande förändringar i partiorganisationerna inte går att se. Slutligen påvisar uppsatsen också att partiföreträdare från de folkrörelsebaserade partierna är mer medlemsorienterade och ger uttryck för att partierna i första hand söker lösningar som finns inbyggt i dess struktur, tradition och identitet som folkrörelse. Partiföreträdare från de icke-folkrörelsebaserade partierna ger uttryck för att dessa partier är mindre bundna till idealet om många medlemmar och också mer benägen att utveckla fler och alternativa aggregeringskanaler och rekryteringskanaler än de folkrörelsebaserade partierna.

  • 10.
    Lundber, Erik
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Social Sciences. Forum för levande historia.
    Abdelzadeh, Ali
    Myndigheten för ungdoms- och civilsamhällesfrågor (MUCF).
    The development of tolerance among the young2017In: Mechanisms of tolerance: an anthology / [ed] Erik Lundberg, Stockholm: Forum för levande historia , 2017, p. 123-144Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Lundberg, Erik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    A pluralist state?: civil society organizations’ access to the Swedish policy process 1964-20092014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Including civil society organizations in the policy process is a distinctive trait of democratic governance. But, while being highly valuable from a democratic point of view, not all civil society organizations are represented in the policy process. This dissertation draws attention to the role of the government in shaping the representation of civil society organizations in the Swedish government consultation referred to as the ‘remiss procedure’. The overall aim is to increase empirical and theoretical understanding of civil society organizations’ access to the national Swedish policy process. Drawing on various empirical data sources, it analyzes how access has changed during the second half of the 20th century, the factors influencing access, and the significance of the access provided by the government.

    The results are based on four empirical studies, and show that the government has encouraged an increasing number and more diverse types of civil society organizations to be represented in the remiss procedure. In addition, organizations with plenty of resources, such as labor and business organizations, are not overrepresented. However, access is slightly skewed in favor of civil society organizations with an insider position within other access points at national government level, which is consistent with a privileged pluralistic pattern of interest representation. In addition, civil society organizations seem to be invited into an arena for political influence of less relevance. Theoretically, the dissertation moves beyond the neo-corporatist perspective that dominated Swedish research during the second half of the 20th century by drawing attention to five different theoretical lenses: pluralism, neo-corporatism, political opportunity structures, policy network theory, and resource exchange theory. It concludes that a variety of theories are needed for access to be understood.

  • 12.
    Lundberg, Erik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Changing balance: the participation and role of voluntary organisations in the Swedish policy process2012In: Scandinavian Political Studies, ISSN 0080-6757, E-ISSN 1467-9477, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 347-371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the changing level of participation of voluntary organisations in the policy process between 1964 and 2009 and its implication for the role played by voluntary organisations to the state. Drawing on data from the remiss procedure – one of the most understudied parts of the Swedish policy-making process – the results implicate a reduced role for voluntary organisations in formal arenas for policy making. While the number of participating voluntary organisations has remained stable, the relative share of participating organisations has declined and an increasing proportion of organisations have abstained from participating. In addition, the shares of conflict-oriented and member-benefit-oriented organisations have decreased while consensus-oriented and public-benefit-oriented organisations appear to have increased slightly. These findings are discussed in the context of changes in the coordination and implementation of public policies, implying that over time the role of voluntary organisations as arenas for deliberation and mediators of individual interests tend to have gradually lost ground in relation to the state while the share of organisations taking direct welfare responsibility has slightly increased. Although it may be premature to speak about a shifting role of voluntary organisations from input to output in the political system, the result suggest an emerging trend in that direction. Further research is needed to clarify whether this changing pattern of participation is evident in other arenas for policy making in Sweden or is an isolated feature explained from the outset of the remiss procedure.

  • 13. Lundberg, Erik
    Det postkorporativa deltagandet: Det postkorporativa deltagandet: Intresseorganisationerna i den nationella politiken2015In: Låt fler forma framtiden! SOU 2015:96: Bilaga till betänkande av 2014 års Demokratiutredning - Delaktighet och jämlikt inflytande, Stockholm: Wolters Kluwer, 2015, p. 293-356Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Lundberg, Erik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Does the government selection process promote or hinder pluralism?: exploring the characteristics of voluntary organizations invited to public consultations2013In: Journal of Civil Society, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 58-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To what extent does the government selection process practised in public consultations promote or hinder pluralism in the policy-making process? This article addresses this question by exploring and analysing the characteristics of voluntary organizations invited to public consultations. Evidence is drawn from the formerly corporatist Scandinavian country of Sweden and the policy-making process referred to as the ‘remiss procedure’. The article shows that the government selection process encourages a multitude of organizations to participate. Consistent with recent studies on Scandinavian corporatism, this study provides weak support of corporatist practices in the Swedish policy process. However, and without challenging the seemingly pluralistic nature of the remiss procedure, voluntary organizations with ‘insider status’ in the policy process are more frequently invited to formal decision-making arenas such as the remiss procedure. It is argued that the policy network literature and the theory of political opportunity structures may further the understanding of the government selection process practised in public consultations.

  • 15.
    Lundberg, Erik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    En försumbar arena?: Organisationerna och remissväsendet 1964-20092012In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 114, no 1, p. 29-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates how the participation of voluntary organisations in the remiss-procedure has changed between 1964 and 2009 and how to interpret this. Drawing on evidence from 33 remiss-directories in nine different policy fields, the results conclude that the proportional level of voluntary organisations has declined and more organisations have chosen to abstain from participating in the remissprocedure. In addition, the number of conflict-oriented organisations has declined while the number of consensus-oriented organisations active in the output side of the political system has increased. It is argued that the result can be understood in relation to the changing mode of governance, new challenges presented by the welfare state and the rise of transnational organisations that seek influence in less formal arenas for policy making.

  • 16.
    Lundberg, Erik
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för humaniora, utbildning och samhällsvetenskap.
    Forskning om relationen mellan det civila och offentliga samhället2011In: Perspektiv på offentlig verksamhet i utveckling: tolv kapitel om demokrati, styrning och effektivitet / [ed] Ann-Sofie Hellberg, Martin Karlsson, Hannu Larsson, Erik Lundberg, Monika Persson, Örebro: Örebro universitet , 2011, p. 71-80Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här kapitlet presenterar en forskningsbakgrund över hur svensksamhällsvetenskaplig forskning har studerat det svenska organisationslivetfrån mitten av 1900-talet till idag. Tillbakablicken illustrerar att begreppetcivilsamhället kan kasta nytt ljus över relationen mellan det civila ochoffentliga samhället och problematisera den samverkan som vi idag ser tarform inom offentlig förvaltning.

  • 17.
    Lundberg, Erik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Injured But Not Yet Dead: A Bottom-Up Perspective on the Swedish Governmental Commissions2015In: International Journal of Public Administration, ISSN 0190-0692, E-ISSN 1532-4265, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 346-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes the recurrent “erosion thesis” in the governance literature, arguing that bureaucratic or procedural public-sector institutions have come to play a less significant role in public-policy formation. Evidence from the Swedish policy-making institutions referred to as “governmental commissions” and adoption of the perspective of interest organizations support the claim. Using various theories of institutional change, I show that increased government control has reduced the influence of governmental commissions on policy, but not eliminated the belief held by interest organizations that the commissions are legitimate institutions.

  • 18.
    Lundberg, Erik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Is Bureaucratic Policy-Making Eroding Institutions?: A Bottom-up Perspective on the Swedish Governmental Commissions2014In: International Journal of Public Administration, ISSN 0190-0692, E-ISSN 1532-4265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes the recurrent “erosion thesis” in the governance literature  arguing  that  bureaucratic  or  procedural government institutions have come to play a less significant role in the formation of  public  policy.  This  article  supports  these  claims  by  drawing evidence  from  the  Swedish  and  neo-corporatist  policy-making institutions  referred  to  as  the ‘governmental  commissions’  and  the perspective  of  interest  organizations.  Using  various  theories  on institutional change I show that increasing government steering has reduced  the  role  of  the  governmental  commissions  in  influencing policy, but has not eliminated interest organizations’ belief that they are  legitimate  institutions.  The  resulting  article concludes  that although the governmental commissions have eroded, the capability of the state to steer or govern society has not necessarily declined.

  • 19.
    Lundberg, Erik
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Social Sciences.
    Mechanisms of tolerance: an anthology2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Lundberg, Erik
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Social Sciences. Forum för levande historia.
    Tolerance: An introduction to the concept, the research and the anthology2017In: Mechanisms of tolerance: An anthology / [ed] Erik Lundberg, Stockholm: Forum för levande historia , 2017, p. 7-29Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Lundberg, Erik
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Social Sciences.
    Tolerans: En introduktion till begreppet, forskningen och antologin2017In: Toleransens mekanismer: en antologi. Stockholm, Forum för levande historia. / [ed] Lundberg, Erik, Stockholm: Forum för levande historia , 2017, p. 7-29Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Lundberg, Erik
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Social Sciences.
    Toleransens mekanismer: En antologi2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Lundberg, Erik
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Toward a New Social Contract?: The Participation of Civil Society in Swedish Welfare Policymaking, 1958–20122017In: VOLUNTAS - International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, ISSN 0957-8765, E-ISSN 1573-7888Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In contribution to current debates on the changing roles and responsibilities of civil society in welfare state arrangements, I examined the participation of various types of civil society organizations in national welfare policymaking in Sweden between 1958 and 2012. Drawing upon an extensive dataset of over 1400 civil society, state, and for-profit organizations, I tested three claims related to the role and responsibility of civil society in the governance of welfare: the changing balance between corporatist and welfare organizations, the shift from voice to service, and another shift from nonprofit organizations to FPOs. My results revealed weak but emerging trends aligned with changing patterns of corporatism and the marketization of Sweden’s welfare system. However, support for any shift from voice to service remains uncertain.

  • 24.
    Lundberg, Erik
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Social Sciences. Forum för levande historia.
    Abdelzadeh, Ali
    Myndigheten för ungdoms- och civilsamhällesfrågor (MUCF).
    A school of tolerance?: Participation in associations and youth tolerance2017In: Mechanisms of tolerance: an anthology / [ed] Erik Lundberg, Stockholm: Forum för levande historia , 2017, p. 322-342Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Lundberg, Erik
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Social Sciences.
    Abdelzadeh, Ali
    MUCF - Myndigheten för ungdoms- och civilsamhällesfrågor.
    En skola i tolerans?: Föreningsengagemanget och ungdomars tolerans2017In: Toleransens mekanismer: En antologi / [ed] Lundberg, Erik, Stockholm: Forum för levande historia , 2017, p. 313-332Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Lundberg, Erik
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Social Sciences.
    Abdelzadeh, Ali
    MUCF- Myndigheten för ungdoms- och civilsamhällesfrågor.
    Utvecklingen av tolerans bland unga2017In: Toleransens mekanismer: en antologi / [ed] Lundberg, Erik, Stockholm: Forum för levande historia , 2017, p. 119-143Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Lundberg, Erik
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Amnå, Erik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Brundin, Pia
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Bozzini, Emanuela
    Department of Sociology and Social Research, University of Trento, Italy.
    European civil societies and the promotion of integration, Leading practices from Sweden, Great Britain, the Netherlands and Italy2011In: Social Rights, Active Citizenship and Governance in the European Union / [ed] Boje, P. Thomas, Potucek Martin, Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft , 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes how European civil societies promote integration in the EU by comparing leading practices from various NGOs in Sweden, Great Britain, the Netherlands and Italy. The chapter concludes that NGOs are active in areas where governments are weak, or, according to the NGOs, do not meet the expected requirements. All NGOs studied here are more or less dependent on public funds, and a lack of funds impedes their ability to access and connect with EU decision-makers and administrative staff. Small NGOs and similar networks in particular have difficulties meeting and influencing politicians and the administrative staff within the EU. It is therefore of utmost importance that policy-makers in the EU create more participatory opportunities for various NGOs, which would simultaneously strengthen the organisation’s legitimacy and relevance. It is worth nothing that the NGOs studied here articulate surprisingly few national variations with regard to the preconditions underlying their work. European policy-making institutions may therefore consider the diversity of European civil societies.

  • 28.
    Lundberg, Erik
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hysing, Erik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    The Value of Participation: Exploring the Role of Public Consultations from the Vantage Point of Interest Groups2016In: Scandinavian Political Studies, ISSN 0080-6757, E-ISSN 1467-9477, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consulting interest groups is commonplace in the preparation of policies by democratic governments. It is often assumed that interest groups participate in consultations primarily for the purpose of influencing policy. This article goes beyond this simplified claim and empirically explores the role of consultations from the vantage point of interest groups. Drawing on the Swedish formalized referral process known as the 'remiss procedure' the article shows that interest groups not only participate in consultations in order to effectively change the policy proposal under consideration, but they also use the output of the process in other venues for policy influence, such as direct political contacts and opinion making, and to establish themselves, or maintain their status as legitimate actors in the eyes of the government. In addition, the remiss procedure appears to be intertwined with the groups' own 'internal life', promoting the development and anchorage of policy positions within the organizations. These insights are important for further understanding the promises, as well as the perils, of public consultation.

  • 29.
    Lundberg, Erik
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Sedelius, Thomas
    Högskolan i Dalarna.
    National Linkages and Ambiguous EU Approaches among European Civil Society Organisations2014In: Journal of Contemporary European Research, ISSN 1815-347X, E-ISSN 1815-347X, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 323-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, the EU has had an explicit strategy to include civil society organizations (CSOs) in European public policy. However, the extent to which domestic CSOs are oriented towards the EU in their policy interests and strategies is influenced by various factors. This article examines to what extent and in what ways CSOs acknowledge the impact of the EU on their substantive policy agenda and under what conditions they would prioritise EU-level contacts and/or lobbying in their strategies. We are particularly interested in finding out which institutional linkages – if any – determine the extent to which domestic CSOs direct their policy activity towards the EU level. The article is based on a survey of 880 Swedish CSO’s as well as qualitative interviews with 17 CSOs within the policy areas of anti-discrimination, immigration and asylum in Sweden, United Kingdom and the Netherlands. The results show that although CSOs recognise the importance of the EU-level and also try to influence EU policy, their priorities and orientation are primarily directed towards the domestic level. From our empirical findings, we argue that in order to understand the limited Europeanization of CSOs, national dependency on financial support and to some extent formal embedding in national welfare systems are key factors. The findings indicate some differences between the organizations’ approaches, which to some extent can be attributed to policy area and organizational character. Policy areas with strong EU legislation implemented at national levels such as anti-discrimination seemingly underpins stronger linkages to local and national governments and thus less EU orientation.

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