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  • 1.
    Berg, Charlotte
    et al.
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Lerner, Henrik
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    A second brood in Canada Geese Branta canadensis?2014In: Ornis Svecica, ISSN 1102-6812, Vol. 24, no 1-2, p. 51-55Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Berzell, Martin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Lerner, Henrik
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Medicinska mätvärdens ontologiska status i ljuset av universaliestriden2014In: Filosofisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0348-7482, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 26-34Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad.
    Berg, Charlotte
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet (SLU).
    Lerner, Henrik
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Hessel, Rebecca
    Högskolan Kristianstad.
    Potential disease transmission from wild geese and swans to livestock,poultry and humans: a review of the scientific literature from a One Health perspective2017In: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 1300450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are more herbivorous waterfowl (swans and geese) close to humans, livestock and poultry than ever before. This creates widespread conflict with agriculture and other human interests, but also debate about the role of swans and geese as potential vectors of disease of relevance for human and animal health. Using a One Health perspective, we provide the first comprehensive review of the scientific literature about the most relevant viral, bacterial, and unicellular pathogens occurring in wild geese and swans. Research thus far suggests that these birds may play a role in transmission of avian influenza virus, Salmonella, Campylobacter, and antibiotic resistance. On the other hand, at present there is no evidence that geese and swans play a role in transmission of Newcastle disease, duck plague, West Nile virus, Vibrio, Yersinia, Clostridium, Chlamydophila, and Borrelia. Finally, based on present knowledge it is not possible to say if geese and swans play a role in transmission of Escherichia coli, Pasteurella, Helicobacter, Brachyspira, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Microsporidia. This is largely due to changes in classification and taxonomy, rapid development of identification methods and lack of knowledge about host specificity. Previous research tends to overrate the role of geese and swans as disease vectors; we do not find any evidence that they are significant transmitters to humans or livestock of any of the pathogens considered in this review. Nevertheless, it is wise to keep poultry and livestock separated from small volume waters used by many wild waterfowl, but there is no need to discourage livestock grazing in nature reserves or pastures where geese and swans are present. Under some circumstances it is warranted to discourage swans and geese from using wastewater ponds, drinking water reservoirs, and public beaches. Intensified screening of swans and geese for AIV, West Nile virus and anatid herpesvirus is warranted.

  • 4. Lerner, Henrik
    Att hata djur2007In: Människan och faunan / [ed] Håkan Tunón, Mattias Iwarsson, Stephen Manktelow, Stockholm / Uppsala: Wahlström & Widstrand / Centrum för biologisk mångfald , 2007, p. 162-164Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Lerner, Henrik
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Conceptions of Health and Disease in Plants and Animals2016In: Handbook of the philosophy of medicine / [ed] Thomas Schramme, Steven Edwards, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2016, p. 1-15Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter analyzes theoretical conceptions of health and disease for plants and animals. Compared to human health, the discussion of these concepts is sparse, although animal health has received more treatment than plant health. The concept of disease seems to be taken for granted, and few attempts have been made to make a classification of specific types of diseases. The main emphasis in this chapter will be on the contemporary debate on animal health definitions. Although the theoretical discussion on these issues has so far been sparse, a categorization of different kinds of health definitions has been presented at least for animals. The six animal health categories are health as homeostasis, as normal biological function, as productivity including reproduction, as well-being, as mental and physical control, and as ability to realize goals. Similarities and differences between health concepts for humans, animals, and plants are also discussed to see whether there is a possibility to have a universal definition for plants, animals, and humans.

  • 6.
    Lerner, Henrik
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    De första exemplen på djurassisterad terapi2014In: Hästen, hunden och den mänskliga hälsan: Vård, behandling och terapi / [ed] Gunilla Silfverberg och Henrik Lerner, Stockholm: Ersta Sköndal högskola Förlag , 2014, p. 41-53Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Lerner, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet.
    Definitioner av begreppet hälsa respektive kondition hos veterinärer och läkare2008In: Djuren är väl också människor: en antologi om hälsa och välbefinnande i djurens och människornas värld, Skara: Institutionen för husdjurens miljö och hälsa, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet , 2008, p. 103-110Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Lerner, Henrik
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Proceedings of the Second Nordic Seminar on Equine Assisted Therapy: Communication and Relations in Equine Assisted Therapy2014Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Lerner, Henrik
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Risker för djur och risker för människor2014In: Hästen, hunden och den mänskliga hälsan: vård, behandling och terapi / [ed] Gunilla Silfverberg, Henrik Lerner, Stockholm: Ersta Sköndal högskola , 2014, p. 165-175Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Lerner, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle, Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The Concepts of Health, Well-being and Welfare as Applied to Animals: A Philosophical Analysis of the Concepts with the Regard to the Differences Between Animals2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is an analysis of the use and definition of the concepts health, well-being and welfare within the field called “the science of animal health and welfare”. The materials used are a literature survey of the field, qualitative interviews with Swedish veterinary surgeons and a study of the concepts in legislation concerning animals in England, Germany and Sweden. The main emphasis has been on theoretical definitions explicitly stated in the different texts or in the interviews. Two ways of distinguishing between animals are used: according to species and according to the role that animals have for humans. As a result it becomes salient whether the definitions have limits with regard to species or role.

    In the thesis a great number of definitions of the three concepts are interpreted, compared and criticised. As a result a limited number of definitions have been categorised and collected into clusters which fulfil minimal requirements of consistency and practicability.

    The analysis supports the use of all three concepts – health, well-being and welfare – since they are all needed for making crucial distinctions in the science of animal health and welfare.

  • 11.
    Lerner, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet.
    The philosophical roots of the "One Medicine" movement: an analysis of some relevant ideas by Rudolf Virchow and Calvin Schwabe with their modern implications2013In: Studia Philosophica Estonica, ISSN 1736-5899 (online) 2228-110X (print), Vol. 6, no 2, p. 97-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade there has been increasing interest in combining veterinary and human medicine, mainly in the areas of vaccination and the eradication of zoonotic and vector-borne diseases. Although the roots of this “One Health-One Medicine” approach can be found in ancient Egypt and Greece, the roots of the philosophy of “one medicine” have not been so thoroughly discussed. In this paper I will analyse some ideas that could unite veterinary and human medicine, from Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902) and Calvin W. Schwabe (1927-2006). Both are recognized as important theoretical founders of the philosophy of one medicine. I will also further develop these thoughts to meet some of the discussions taking place today.

  • 12.
    Lerner, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet.
    Transeminarium om eutanasi för människa och av djur2010In: Svensk Veterinärtidning, Vol. 62, no 10, p. 23-25Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13. Lerner, Henrik
    Vilka konsekvenser av en forskningsintervju bör man förutsäga?2010In: Gäller vanligt folkvett också för akademiker?: Rapport från ett seminarium om makt och etik / [ed] Gustav Bockgård & Håkan Tunón, Centrum för biologisk mångfald / Naptek , 2010, p. 44-47Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Lerner, Henrik
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Värdeteoretisk analys nödvändig2015In: Biodiverse, ISSN 1401-5064, no 1, p. 4-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Lerner, Henrik
    et al.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Algers, Bo
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Gunnarsson, Stefan
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköpings universitet.
    Stakeholders on Meat Production, Meat Consumption and Mitigation of Climate Change: Sweden as a Case2013In: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, ISSN 1187-7863, E-ISSN 1573-322X, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 663-678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we analyse and discuss the views of Swedish stakeholders on how to mitigate climate change to the extent it is caused by meat production. The stakeholders include meat producer organisations, governmental agencies with direct influence on meat production, political parties as well as non-governmental organisations. Representatives of twelve organisations were interviewed. Several organisations argued against the mitigation option of reducing beef production despite the higher greenhouse gas intensity of beef compared to pork and chicken meat (according to life cycle analysis). Regarding feed production some organisations proposed use of the best available industrial fertilizers, others were against all use of such fertilizers. Several organizations suggested domestic production of more protein-rich fodder and use of manure for biogas production. Regarding meat consumption the focus was on throwing away less food as waste and on eating less meat but the best (most climate friendly) meat, which was considered to be Swedish meat in contrast to imported meat. There was agreement on many issues. Most disagreement was found regarding political steering. We find many of the stakeholders' mitigation proposals regarding meat production and consumption acceptable. However, we are to some extent critical to their defence of Swedish beef production. We also point out certain problems with the suggestion to reduce consumption of imported meat but not of domestically produced meat.

  • 16.
    Lerner, Henrik
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Berg, Charlotte
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet (SLU)..
    A Comparison of Three Holistic Approaches to Health: One Health, EcoHealth, and Planetary Health2017In: Frontiers in Veterinary Science, E-ISSN 2297-1769Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several holistic and interdisciplinary approaches exist to safeguard health. Three of the most influential concepts at the moment, One Health, EcoHealth, and Planetary Health, are analyzed in this paper, revealing similarities and differences at the theoretical conceptual level. These approaches may appear synonymous, as they all promote the underlying assumption of humans and other animals sharing the same planet and the same environmental challenges, infections and infectious agents as well as other aspects of physical—and possibly mental—health. However, we would like to illuminate the differences between these three concepts or approaches, and how the choice of terms may, deliberately or involuntary, signal the focus, and underlying values of the approaches. In this paper, we have chosen some proposed and well-known suggestions of definitions. In our theoretical analysis, we will focus on at least two areas. These are (1) the value of the potential scientific areas which could be included and (2) core values present within the approach. In the first area, our main concern is whether the approaches are interdisciplinary and whether the core scientific areas are assigned equal importance. For the second area, which is rather wide, we analyze core values such as biodiversity, health, and how one values humans, animals, and ecosystems. One Health has been described as either a narrow approach combining public health and veterinary medicine or as a wide approach as in the wide-spread “umbrella” depiction including both scientific fields, core concepts, and interdisciplinary research areas. In both cases, however, safeguarding the health of vertebrates is usually in focus although ecosystems are also included in the model. The EcoHealth approach seems to have more of a biodiversity focus, with an emphasis on all living creatures, implying that parasites, unicellular organisms, and possibly also viruses have a value and should be protected. Planetary Health, on the other hand, has been put forward as a fruitful approach to deal with growing threats in the health area, not least globally. We conclude that there are actually important differences between these three approaches, which should be kept in mind when using any of these terms.

  • 17.
    Lerner, Henrik
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Berg, Charlotte
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    The concept of health in One Health and some practical implications for research and education: What is One Health?2015In: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 5, p. 25300-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Lerner, Henrik
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Berzell, Martin
    Linköpings universitet.
    Reference values and the problem of health as normality: a veterinary attempt in the light of a one health approach2014In: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 4, p. 24270-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reference values seem crucial to both veterinary medicine and human medicine. The main critique is that thetheoretical connections between the concepts of reference values, normality, and health are weak. In this paper,we analyze especially one attempt in veterinary medicine to establish such a theoretical connection. We findthat this attempt fails because it is circular. In conclusion, we would postulate that there are two apparent waysforward: to aim for a definition of health not based on the concept of normality, or to develop the concept ofnormality as separate from statistical normality. These goals can be reached with a one health perspective.

  • 19.
    Lerner, Henrik
    et al.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Hofmann, Bjorn
    Universitetet i Oslo.
    Normality and naturalness: A comparison of the meanings of concepts used within veterinary medicine and human medicine2011In: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics, ISSN 1386-7415, E-ISSN 1573-0980, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 403-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the different connotations of "normality" and "being natural," bringing together the theoretical discussion from both human medicine and veterinary medicine. We show how the interpretations of the concepts in the different areas could be mutually fruitful. It appears that the conceptions of "natural" are more elaborate in veterinary medicine, and can be of value to human medicine. In particular they can nuance and correct conceptions of nature in human medicine that may be too idealistic. Correspondingly, the wide ranging conceptions of "normal" in human medicine may enrich conceptions in veterinary medicine, where the discussions seem to be sparse. We do not argue that conceptions from veterinary medicine should be used in human medicine and vice versa, but only that it could be done and that it may well be fruitful. Moreover, there are overlaps between some notions of normal and natural, and further conceptual analysis on this overlap is needed.

  • 20.
    Lerner, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Lindblad, Anna
    Karolinska institutet.
    Algers, Bo
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Lynoe, Niels
    Karolinska institutet.
    Veterinary surgeons' attitudes towards physician-assisted suicide: an empirical study of Swedish experts on euthanasia2011In: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 295-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To examine the hypothesis that knowledge about physician-assisted suicide (PAS) and euthanasia is associated with a more restrictive attitude towards PAS.

    Design: A questionnaire about attitudes towards PAS, including prioritisation of arguments pro and contra, was sent to Swedish veterinary surgeons. The results were compared with those from similar surveys of attitudes among the general public and physicians.

    Participants: All veterinary surgeons who were members of the Swedish Veterinary Association and had provided an email address (n=2421).

    Main outcome measures: Similarities or differences in response pattern between veterinary surgeons, physicians and the general public.

    Results: The response pattern among veterinary surgeons and the general public was almost similar in all relevant aspects. Of the veterinarians 75% (95% CI 72% to 78%) were in favour of PAS, compared with 73% (95% CI 69% to 77%) among the general public. Only 10% (95% CI 5% to 15%) of the veterinary surgeons were against PAS, compared with 12% (95% CI 5% to 19%) among the general public. Finally, 15% (95% CI 10% to 21%) of veterinarians were undecided, compared with 15% (95% CI 8% to 22%) among the general public. Physicians had a more restrictive attitude to PAS than the general public.

    Conclusions: Since veterinary surgeons have frequent practical experience of euthanasia in animals, they do have knowledge about what euthanasia really is. Veterinary surgeons and the general public had an almost similar response pattern. Accordingly it seems difficult to maintain that knowledge about euthanasia is unambiguously associated with a restrictive attitude towards PAS.

  • 21.
    Lerner, Henrik
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Silfverberg, Gunilla
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Design och utvärdering av forskning och praktisk verksamhet2014In: Hästen, hunden och den mänskliga hälsan: Vård behandling och terapi / [ed] Gunilla Silfverberg och Henrik Lerner, Stockholm: Ersta Sköndal högskola Förlag , 2014, p. 177-187Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Lerner, Henrik
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Silfverberg, Gunilla
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    En inblick i terminologin2014In: Hästen, hunden och den mänskliga hälsan: Vård, behandling och terapi / [ed] Gunilla Silfverberg och Henrik Lerner, Stockholm: Ersta Sköndal högskola Förlag , 2014, p. 31-40Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Lerner, Henrik
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Silfverberg, Gunilla
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Inledning2014In: Hästen, hunden och den mänskliga hälsan: vård, behandling och terapi / [ed] Gunilla Silfverberg, Henrik Lerner, Stockholm: Ersta Sköndal högskola , 2014, p. 21-29Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Lerner, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Skillnäs, NicklasLinköpings universitet.
    Essäer om hälsa: En antologi från forskarutbildningen på Tema Hälsa och samhälle2006Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Lerner, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Tunón, Håkan
    Vad är traditionell och lokal kunskap?2010In: Nycklar till kunskap: Om människans bruk av naturen / [ed] Håkan Tunón & Anna Dahlström, Stockholm: Kungl. Skogs- och Lantbruksakademien & Centrum för biologisk mångfald , 2010, p. 41-57Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Lerner, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Tunón, Håkan
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    What knowledge is "jizz"?2012In: Ornis Svecica, ISSN 1102-6812, Vol. 22, p. 73-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Jizz is used by many birders to identify bird species. The definition of jizz differs between authors, but concerns aspects of the bird that are not always easy to define scientifically or describe in objective terms. Rather, impressions of the bird are favoured, including size, shape, behavior and appearance. Here we try to show that jizz is a term worth studying in detail, since its use offers insights in how to identify species, why there are differences among observers in bird surveys and why traditional knowledge about biological diversity might be worth saving when preserving species.

  • 27.
    Lerner, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Wendel, Lotta
    Om möss och människor: försöksobjektens rättsliga ställning i human- och djurlagstiftningen2008In: Djuren är väl också människor: en antologi om hälsa och välbefinnande i djurens och människornas värld / [ed] Bo Algers, Stefan Gunnarsson, Lennart Nordenfeldt, Skara: Institutionen för husdjurens miljö och hälsa, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet , 2008, p. 93-101Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Silfverberg, Gunilla
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Lerner, HenrikErsta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Hästen, hunden och den mänskliga hälsan: Vård, behandling och terapi2014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Simm, Kadri
    et al.
    University of Tartu.
    Lerner, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet.
    Medical philosophy and medical ethics in the Nordic and the Baltic countries: Some pressing issues2013In: Studia Philosophica Estonica, ISSN 1736-5899 (online) 2228-110X (print), Vol. 6, no 2, p. 1-5Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Tunón, Håkan
    et al.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet: Centrum för biologisk mångfald.
    Kvarnström, Marie
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet: Centrum för biologisk mångfald.
    Lerner, Henrik
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Ethical codes of conduct for research related to Indigenous peoples and local communities: core principles, challenges and opportunities2016In: Ethics in Indigenous Research: Past Experiences - Future Challenges / [ed] Anna-Lill Drugge, Umeå: Vaartoe - Centre for Sami Research , 2016, p. 57-80Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Codes and guidelines related to the rights of and respect for Indigenous and local communities and their knowledge have been developed during the last decades. A milestone is the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) where the parties have agreed “to respect, preserve and maintain knowledge, innovations and practices of Indigenous and local communities embodying traditional lifestyles”. This study analyses core ethical principles in 13 codes and guidelines. Of 18 principles listed six were identified as core principles. A discussion on challenges and opportunities in implementing these is made with the reference to the Swedish setting and to a Saami context. The codes are created with good intentions and contribute to raising general ethical awareness. However, in Sweden awareness of the relevant guidelines is low among researchers, in ethical committees of universities as well as in local communities. There is also a risk that the elements in the guidelines will be administrative items to tick off rather than favouring a good working relationship between the research team and the local community.

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