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  • 1.
    Berg, Linda
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Nolbris, Margaretha Jenholt
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Koinberg, Ingalill
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Möller, Anders
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Social Sciences. Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Öhlen, Joakim
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Characterisation of cancer support and rehabilitation programmes: a Swedish multiple case study.2014In: Open Nursing Journal, ISSN 1874-4346, E-ISSN 1874-4346, Vol. 8, article id TONURSJ-8-1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cancer support and rehabilitation are suggested to be an integral part of cancer care strategies. This study focuses on comparativeness of cancer support and rehabilitation programmes. The aim of this study was to analyse available cancer support and rehabilitation programmes in Sweden presented as complementary to cancer rehabilitation at cancer clinics. A multiple case study design was chosen in order to inquire the small number of existing supportive and rehabilitative cancer programmes. Based on the structures, processes and outcomes of the nine included programmes, three types of cancer support and rehabilitation programmes were identified: multimodal rehabilitation, comprehensive cancer support and art therapy. Cancer support and rehabilitation programmes offer a variety of activities and therapies which are highly valuable and relevant for people with cancer. The typology of cancer support and rehabilitation programmes and comparability between programmes need further inquiry.

  • 2. Browall, Maria
    et al.
    Henoch, Ingela
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Strang, Susann
    Danielson, Ella
    Existential encounters: nurses' descriptions of critical incidents in end-of-life cancer care.2014In: European Journal of Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1462-3889, E-ISSN 1532-2122, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 636-44, article id S1462-3889(14)00077-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    UNLABELLED: Nurses working with cancer patients in end of life care need to be prepared to encounter patients' psychosocial and spiritual distress.

    AIM: The aim of this study was to describe nurses' experiences of existential situations when caring for patients severely affected by cancer.

    METHODS AND SAMPLE: Nurses (registered and enrolled) from three urban in-patient hospices, an oncology clinic and a surgery clinic and a palliative homecare team were, prior to the start of a training program, invited to write down their experiences of a critical incident (CI), in which existential issues were featured.

    RESULTS: Eighty-eight CIs were written by 83 nurses. The CIs were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Two main themes were found: Encounters with existential pain experiences, which concerned facing death and facing losses; and Encountering experiences of hope, which concerned balancing honesty, and desire to live.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study points out that health care professionals need to be aware of patients' feelings of abandonment in exposed situations such as patients' feelings of existential loneliness. That there are some patients that express a desire to die and this makes the nurses feel uncomfortable and difficult to confront these occurrences and its therefore important to listen to patients' stories, regardless of care organization, in order to gain access to patients' inner existential needs.

  • 3. Browall, Maria
    et al.
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Strang, Susann
    Danielson, Ella
    Henoch, Ingela
    Health care staff's opinions about existential issues among patients with cancer.2010In: Palliative & Supportive Care, ISSN 1478-9515, E-ISSN 1478-9523, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 59-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore health care staff's opinions about what existential issues are important to patients with cancer and staff's responsibility when existential issues are raised by patients.

    METHOD: Four focus group interviews were conducted with health care staff (N = 23) at an in-patient hospice, on an oncology ward, on a surgical ward, and with a palliative home health care team. The focus group interviews focused on two questions, first, about health care staff's opinions about patients' important existential questions and, second, about health care staff's responsibility when existential issues are raised by the patient. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by qualitative content analysis into subcategories and categories.

    RESULTS: Four categories and 11 subcategories emerged from the first question. The first category, "life and death," was based on joy of living and thoughts of dying. The second category "meaning," consisted of acceptance, reevaluation, hope, and faith. The third category, "freedom of choice," consisted of responsibility and integrity, and the fourth and last category, "relationships and solitude," consisted of alleviation, dependency, and loss. One category emerged from the second question about the health care staff's responsibility, "to achieve an encounter," which was based on the subcategories time and space, attitudes, and invitation and confirmation.

    SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: The strength of this study was that the findings were fairly congruent in different settings and in different geographical areas. Health care staff were aware of the importance of existential issues to patients. The existential issues, mentioned by health care staff, are similar to findings from studies conducted among patients, which is another strength of the present study. Health care staff are also confident about how to act when these issues are raised by the patients. The challenge for the future is to implement the findings from this study among health care staff in different settings.

  • 4. Eriksson, Gerd
    et al.
    Bergstedt, Tina Wahlström
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    Mittuniversitetet.
    The need for palliative care education, support, and reflection among rural nurses and other staff: A quantitative study.2015In: Palliative & Supportive Care, ISSN 1478-9515, E-ISSN 1478-9523, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 265-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Many people now die in community care, and, considering the aging population, all healthcare staff members must be prepared to provide palliative care. Our objectives were to describe the total staff working in different care organizations in a rural community in Sweden and to explore palliative care competence, to describe educational gaps and the need for support and reflection, and to determine whether there are differences in care organizations, professions, age, and gender.

    METHOD: A 4-section 20-item questionnaire was distributed to 1686 staff (65% response rate): in nursing homes (n = 395), home care (n = 240), and group residential settings (n = 365). Registered nurses (n = 70), assistant nurses (n = 916), managers (n = 43), and paramedics (n = 33) participated. Descriptive and correlational statistics were employed.

    RESULTS: Significant differences were found, and 40% (53% among men) lacked palliative care education, Fewer than 50% lacked education in the spiritual/existential areas, and 75% of those aged 20-66 (75% women, 55% men) needed further education. More women than men and staff aged 50-59 had an increased need to reflect.

    SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: Our study may provide guidance for managers in rural communities when planning educational interventions in palliative care for healthcare staff and may support direct education with content for specific professions.

  • 5.
    Haas, Barbara K.
    et al.
    USA.
    Hermanns, Melinda
    USA.
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Case Study of Persons with Cancer Participating ina Community-Based Exercise Program: An Exploration of Meaning and Change2016In: The Qualitative Report, ISSN 1052-0147, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 1409-1424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    quantitative studies have substantiated the significant effects of exercise on physical functioning, theindividual’s perspective of participating in an exercise program has rarely been considered. The purpose of thisstudy was to explain the impact of a community based exercise program on the lives of persons with cancerand their caregivers. Based on Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory, a single explanatory case study withmultiple embedded units of analyses was conducted. Interviews were conducted with 10 individualsrepresenting participants with cancer, their caregivers, and health care providers. Data were analyzed usingYin’s case study method. Four themes emerged (Sense of Community, Building Relationships, Bridging theGap, and Living Life Abundantly), which identified the unique characteristics of this community basedexercise program. Incorporation of these characteristics into program planning may benefit othercommunities that aspire to offer a similar program to improve patient outcomes and enhance quality of life.

  • 6.
    Henoch, I
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Danielson, E
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Strang, S
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Browall, M
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Melin-Johansson4, Christina
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Patients', family members' and healthcare staffs' opinions about existential issues as a base for an educational intervention2011In: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care, ISSN 2045-435X, E-ISSN 2045-4368, Vol. 1, no 1, article id 62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To explore patients', family members' and healthcare staff's opinions about existential issues important to patients with cancer and their relatives.

    Methods Two integrative literature reviews were conducted about existential issues among cancer patients and relatives, and interventions to meet these issues. Four focus groups were conducted with healthcare staff working with cancer patients at different stages about patients' existential issues, and staff's responsibility when existential issues are raised.

    Results In the patient review, existential issues were divided into two themes: struggle to maintain self-identity and threats to self-identity. Relatives' existential issues concerned living both in and beyond the presence of death, with reminders of death, compelling them to respond to life close to death and seek support. Few interventions directed to patients or relatives applicable to everyday healthcare practice were found. Focus groups with staff revealed four categories of patients' existential issues, life and death, meaning, freedom of choice, relationships and solitude. According to staff, their responsibility concerned achieving an encounter with the patient.

    Conclusion Results from three studies are congruent in that, patients, relatives and staff agree, although in different ways, about the importance of existential issues to patients and relatives. Healthcare staff was aware of the importance of existential issues and are to some extent confident about how to act when these issues are raised by the patients.

    Ongoing studies The project group now continues implementing findings from these studies in an educational intervention to healthcare staff in different settings, and planning interventions to patients and relatives.

  • 7. Henoch, Ingela
    et al.
    Browall, Maria
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Danielson, Ella
    Udo, Camilla
    Johansson Sundler, Annelie
    Björk, Maria
    Ek, Kristina
    Hammarlund, Kina
    Bergh, Ingrid
    Strang, Susann
    The Swedish version of the Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying scale: aspects of validity and factors influencing nurses' and nursing students' attitudes.2014In: Cancer Nursing, ISSN 0162-220X, E-ISSN 1538-9804, Vol. 37, no 1, p. E1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Nurses' attitudes toward caring for dying persons need to be explored. The Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying (FATCOD) scale has not previously been used in Swedish language.

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to compare FATCOD scores among Swedish nurses and nursing students with those from other languages, to explore the existence of 2 subscales, and to evaluate influences of experiences on attitudes toward care of dying patients.

    METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional, and predictive design was used. The FATCOD scores of Swedish nurses from hospice, oncology, surgery clinics, and palliative home care and nursing students were compared with published scores from the United States, Israel, and Japan. Descriptive statistics, t tests, and factor and regression analyses were used.

    RESULTS: The sample consisted of 213 persons: 71 registered nurses, 42 enrolled nurses, and 100 nursing students. Swedish FATCOD mean scores did not differ from published means from the United States and Israel, but were significantly more positive than Japanese means. In line with Japanese studies, factor analyses yielded a 2-factor solution. Total FATCOD and subscales had low Cronbach α's. Hospice and palliative team nurses were more positive than oncology and surgery nurses to care for dying patients.

    CONCLUSIONS: Although our results suggest that the Swedish FATCOD may comprise 2 distinct scales, the total scale may be the most adequate and applicable for use in Sweden. Professional experience was associated with nurses' attitudes toward caring for dying patients.

    IMPLICATION FOR PRACTICE: Care culture might influence nurses' attitudes toward caring for dying patients; the benefits of education need to be explored.

  • 8. Henoch, Ingela
    et al.
    Danielson, Ella
    Strang, Susann
    Browall, Maria
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Training intervention for health care staff in the provision of existential support to patients with cancer: a randomized, controlled study.2013In: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, ISSN 0885-3924, E-ISSN 1873-6513, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 785-94, article id S0885-3924(13)00190-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CONTEXT: When a patient receives a cancer diagnosis, existential issues become more compelling. Throughout the illness trajectory, patients with cancer are cared for in oncology wards, by home care teams or in hospices. Nurses working with these patients are sometimes aware of the patients' existential needs but do not feel confident when discussing these issues.

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of a training intervention, where the focus is on existential issues and nurses' perceived confidence in communication and their attitude toward caring for dying patients.

    METHODS: This was a randomized, controlled trial with a training intervention comprising theoretical training in existential issues combined with individual and group reflection. In total, 102 nurses in oncology and hospice wards and in palliative home care teams were randomized to a training or non-training group. Primary outcomes, confidence in communication, and attitude toward the care of dying patients were measured at baseline, immediately after the training, and five to six months later.

    RESULTS: Confidence in communication improved significantly in the training group from baseline (before the training) to both the first and second follow-up, that is, immediately after the training and five months later. The attitude toward caring for the dying did not improve in the training group.

    CONCLUSION: This study shows that short-term training with reflection improves the confidence of health care staff when communicating, which is important for health care managers with limited resources. Further studies are needed to explore how patients experience the communication skills of health care staff after such training.

  • 9.
    Henoch, Ingela
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet, Angereds närsjukhus.
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    Göteborgs universitet, Mittuniversitetet.
    Bergh, Ingrid
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Strang, Susann
    Göteborgs universitet, Angereds närsjukhus.
    Ek, Kristina
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Hammarlund, Kina
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Lundh Hagelin, Carina
    Sophiahemmets högskola, Stockholms sjukhem, Karolinska institutet.
    Westin, Lars
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Österlind, Jane
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Ersta sjukhus.
    Browall, Maria
    Högskolan i Skövde, Karolinska institutet.
    Undergraduate nursing students' attitudes and preparedness toward caring for dying persons: A longitudinal study2017In: Nurse Education in Practice, ISSN 1471-5953, E-ISSN 1873-5223, Vol. 26, p. 12-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nursing education needs to prepare students for care of dying patients. The aim of this study was to describe the development of nursing students' attitudes toward caring for dying patients and their perceived preparedness to perform end-of-life care. A longitudinal study was performed with 117 nursing students at six universities in Sweden. The students completed the Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying Scale (FATCOD) questionnaire at the beginning of first and second year, and at the end of third year of education. After education, the students completed questions about how prepared they felt by to perform end-of-life care. The total FATCOD increased from 126 to 132 during education. Five weeks' theoretical palliative care education significantly predicted positive changes in attitudes toward caring for dying patients. Students with five weeks' theoretical palliative care training felt more prepared and supported by the education to care for a dying patient than students with shorter education. A minority felt prepared to take care of a dead body or meet relatives.

  • 10. Henoch, Ingela
    et al.
    Strang, Susann
    Browall, Maria
    Danielson, Ella
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Development of an existential support training program for healthcare professionals.2015In: Palliative & Supportive Care, ISSN 1478-9515, E-ISSN 1478-9523, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 1701-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to describe the developmental process of a training program for nurses to communicate existential issues with severely ill patients.

    METHOD: The Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for the development and evaluation of complex interventions was used to develop a training program for nurses to communicate about existential issues with their patients. The steps in the framework were employed to describe the development of the training intervention, and the development, feasibility and piloting, evaluation, and implementation phases. The development and feasibility phases are described in the Methods section. The evaluation and implementation phases are described in the Results section.

    RESULTS: In the evaluation phase, the effectiveness of the intervention was shown as nurses' confidence in communication increased after training. The understanding of the change process was considered to be that the nurses could describe their way of communicating in terms of prerequisites, process, and content. Some efforts have been made to implement the training intervention, but these require further elaboration.

    SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: Existential and spiritual issues are very important to severely ill patients, and healthcare professionals need to be attentive to such questions. It is important that professionals be properly prepared when patients need this communication. An evidence-based training intervention could provide such preparation. Healthcare staff were able to identify situations where existential issues were apparent, and they reported that their confidence in communication about existential issues increased after attending a short-term training program that included reflection. In order to design a program that should be permanently implemented, more knowledge is needed of patients' perceptions of the quality of the healthcare staff's existential support.

  • 11. Høgsnes, Linda
    et al.
    Danielson, Ella
    Norbergh, Karl-Gustaf
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    Mittuniversitetet, Göteborgs universitet.
    Healthcare professionals' documentation in nursing homes when caring for patients with dementia in end of life - a retrospective records review.2016In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 25, no 11-12, p. 1663-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate how end-of-life care was described by healthcare professionals in records of deceased persons affected by dementia who had lived in Swedish nursing homes.

    BACKGROUND: In the final stage of dementia disease, the persons are often cared for at nursing homes and they often die there. The research concurs that a palliative approach to end-of-life care is essential but there are still some limitations regarding research about what constitutes the end-of-life care provided to persons affected by dementia in Sweden.

    DESIGN: Descriptive qualitative method with a retrospective approach.

    METHOD: Nursing records (n = 50) and medical records (n = 50) were retrospectively reviewed in two nursing homes. The analysis was conducted using deductive and inductive content analysis. Three phases of The Liverpool Care Pathway; Initial assessment, Continuous assessment and Follow-up, were used deductively to first sort the text in the records, then the text in each phase was further analysed with inductive content analysis. Four categories and 11 subcategories described the content in the records.

    RESULTS: The end-of-life care was described in the healthcare records based on such categories as decision-making, participation and communication, assessment and prevention of symptom and following up after the residents had died.

    CONCLUSION: Paticularly, physical symptoms were documented and, to a lesser degree, psychological or existential/spiritual needs.

    RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Healthcare professionals must have a holistic view of the person affected by dementia during the end-of-life care and, according to this study, more focus must be placed on their psychosocial and existential needs in the documentation of end-of-life care.

  • 12. Høgsnes, Linda
    et al.
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Norbergh, Karl Gustaf
    Danielson, Ella
    The existential life situations of spouses of persons with dementia before and after relocating to a nursing home.2014In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 152-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The aim was to describe the existential life situations of spouses who care for persons with dementia, before and after relocation to nursing homes.

    METHOD: This was a qualitative study among 11 spouses of persons with dementia, recruited via purposeful sampling. Data were collected through interviews and analysed with interpretive content analysis.

    RESULTS: Before the relocation to nursing homes, the spouses' existential life situations were characterized by feelings of shame and guilt, being isolated in the home. Spouses were also exposed to psychological threats, physical violence, and had feelings of placing one's own needs last. After the relocation, spouses described feelings of guilt and freedom, living with grief and thoughts of death, feelings of loneliness in the spousal relationship, and striving for acceptance despite a lack of completion.

    CONCLUSION: The existential life situation of spouses of persons with dementia is about being in limit situations which changes when the ill person relocates to a nursing home. This is important knowledge for health care staff to bear in mind at nursing homes when encountering spouses.

  • 13. Høgsnes, Linda
    et al.
    Norbergh, Karl-Gustaf
    Danielson, Ella
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    Mittuniversitetet.
    The Shift in Existential Life Situations of Adult Children to Parents with Dementia Relocated to Nursing Homes.2016In: Open Nursing Journal, ISSN 1874-4346, E-ISSN 1874-4346, Vol. 10, p. 122-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Previous research describes spouses and adult children of people with dementia as a homogeneous group using one term: family caregivers. Recent research shows that the needs and experiences of spouses and adult children differ, therefore they cannot be studied as a homogeneous group.

    AIMS: The aim of the study was to describe the shift in existential life situations of adult children of a parent with dementia relocated to nursing homes.

    DESIGN: This is a qualitative study with an interpretive approach.

    METHODS: Face-to-face interviews were held with 11 adult children aged 48-65 years. The interviews lasted 30-60 minutes and data were analysed using interpretive content analysis.

    FINDINGS: The adult children described how they experienced their life situation before and after their parents' relocation. Before relocation they described feelings of powerlessness, loneliness in their responsibilities, loss and guilt. After relocation they had feelings of freedom, ongoing responsibility, living with loss and having a new relationship with death.

    CONCLUSION: The most important finding in our study was that adult children developed a different relationship with death than before the parent became affected by dementia. It is essential that healthcare staff understand and address the adult children's existential life situations and the suffering they are experiencing. Healthcare staff need to be conscious about adult children's needs for support to address their existential life situations before and after their parents relocate to nursing homes.

  • 14.
    Høgsnes, Linda
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Norbergh, Karl-Gustaf
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences. Mittuniversitetet.
    “Being in Between”: Nurses' Experiences When Caring for Individuals With Dementia and Encountering Family Caregivers' Existential Life Situations2019In: Research in Gerontological Nursing, ISSN 1940-4921, E-ISSN 1938-2464, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 91-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of the current study was to explore nursing home staff's understanding and how they approach family caregivers' existential life situations when caring for individuals with dementia. A qualitative interview study was conducted with 20 nursing staff in two nursing homes in northern Sweden. Face-to-face interviews were analyzed using interpretive content analysis. One overarching theme with three themes and nine subthemes comprised the findings. The themes describe how nursing staff were “in between” when they cared for individuals with dementia and encountered family caregivers' existential life situations. Nurses acted as advocates and safeguarded family caregivers via dialogues and interactions. Nurses were supporters and by “being in between” they eased family caregivers' feelings of powerlessness in relation to dying and death. “Being in between” may give nurses a deeper understanding of family caregivers' existential needs, thus increasing family caregivers' well-being.

  • 15.
    Johansson, Christina Melin
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Axelsson, Bertil
    Danielson, Ella
    Living with incurable cancer at the end of life--patients' perceptions on quality of life.2006In: Cancer Nursing, ISSN 0162-220X, E-ISSN 1538-9804, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 391-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes incurably ill cancer patients' perceptions of the quality of life at the end of life. Purposeful sampling was used to get as comprehensive descriptions as possible about quality of life. Five patients participated in repeated focus groups. Content analysis showed that the patients emphasized what they could perform and enjoy in daily life, not their shortcomings. Five themes were developed: "valuing ordinariness in life," "maintaining a positive life," "alleviated suffering," "significant relations," and "managing life when ill." The themes describe that the patients could participate in daily and social life despite cancer. Relation with family and palliative team deepened during the progress of illness in such that a resonance developed in communication. Other important findings were that patients' memories helped them to maintain a positive life and that the patients used individual strategies to relieve pain by emotional and physical distractions. For the patients, managing life as ill meant taking actions with creative thinking in solving problems as a way to cope and achieve quality of life. These positive findings from the focus groups have led to continued research regarding how patients with incurable cancer perceive quality of life.

  • 16.
    Lundh Hagelin, Carina
    et al.
    Sophiahemmets högskola, Stockholms sjukhem, Karolinska institutet.
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    Mittuniversitetet, Göteborgs universitet.
    Henoch, Ingela
    Göteborgs universitet, Angereds närsjukhus, Göteborg.
    Bergh, Ingrid
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Ek, Kristina
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Hammarlund, Kina
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Prahl, Charlotte
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Strang, Susann
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Westin, Lars
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Österlind, Jane
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Browall, Maria
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Factors influencing attitude toward care of dying patients in first- year nursing students2016In: International Journal of Palliative Nursing, ISSN 1357-6321, E-ISSN 2052-286X, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 28-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To describe Swedish first-year undergraduate nursing students’ attitudes toward care of dying patients. Possible influences such as age, earlier care experiences, care education, experiences of meeting dying patients and place of birth were investigated.

    Method: The Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying Scale (FATCOD) was used in six universities. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis were used.

    Results: Some 371 students (67.3%) reported overall positive attitude toward caring for dying patients (total mean FATCOD 119.5, SD 10.6) early in their first semester. Older students, students with both earlier care experience and earlier education, those with experience of meeting a dying person, and students born in Sweden reported the highest scores, a more positive attitude.

    Conclusion: Age, earlier care experience and education, experiences of meeting a dying person and place of birth seems to affect students’ attitudes toward care of the dying and need to be considered among nursing educators.

  • 17.
    Lövgren, Malin
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Karolinska institutet.
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC.
    Udo, Camilla
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Högskolan Dalarna.
    Sveen, Josefin
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Uppsala universitet.
    Telling the truth to dying children-End-of-life communication with families.2019In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18. Martinsson, Lisa
    et al.
    Axelsson, Bertil
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    Mittuniversitetet, Göteborgs universitet.
    Patients' perspectives on information from physicians during palliative chemotherapy: A qualitative study.2016In: Palliative & Supportive Care, ISSN 1478-9515, E-ISSN 1478-9523, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 495-502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: During the course of their disease, patients with cancer receiving palliative chemotherapy receive extensive amounts of information from physicians. The objective of our study was to describe patients' perspectives on the information they received from physicians during palliative chemotherapy with regard to their cancer diagnosis, treatments, prognosis, and future planning.

    METHOD: A total of 15 semistructured face-to-face interviews with patients who had incurable cancer were conducted, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed with qualitative content analysis.

    RESULTS: Three categories were defined during the analytical process: "having a chronic disease," "depending on chemotherapy," and "living with an unpredictable future."

    SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: Our study demonstrated that patients undergoing palliative chemotherapy perceived that their disease was incurable and chronic, that they were dependent on chemotherapy, and that their future was uncertain. Compared with other studies, the patients in our study seemed to be more aware of their prognosis and the goals of care.

  • 19.
    Melin-Johansson, C
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Axelsson, B
    Danielson, E
    Caregivers' perceptions about terminally ill family members' quality of life.2007In: European Journal of Cancer Care, ISSN 0961-5423, E-ISSN 1365-2354, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 338-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Caregivers' perceptions on terminally ill family members' quality of life is rarely described. The aim of this study was to describe caregivers' perceptions about terminally ill family members' quality of life when suffering from cancer. Four caregivers participated in repeated focus group, and the data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The findings were presented through five themes: 'living a normal life', 'being relieved from burdens', 'having a sense of belonging', 'being a symbol of incurable illness' and 'having a sense of dignity'. We found that to manage daily life it was significant to keep up a normal life and participate in social life. One new insight in this study was that caregivers contributed to an extending understanding to the term meaning in which the sense of belonging was fundamental. An obstacle for the sense of belonging was illuminated as the visible signs of incurable illness that stigmatized the ill person, and influenced the dignity. This study highlights the importance of supportive actions from significant others and healthcare professionals for terminally ill family members' quality of life.

  • 20.
    Melin-Johansson, C
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Axelsson, B
    Gaston-Johansson, F
    Danielson, E
    Significant improvement in quality of life of patients with incurable cancer after designation to a palliative homecare team.2010In: European Journal of Cancer Care, ISSN 0961-5423, E-ISSN 1365-2354, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 243-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were to describe and compare quality of life before and after designation to a palliative homecare team in patients with different cancer diagnoses and to identify pre-designation predictors of post-designation global quality of life. We measured patients' quality of life 1 week before designation and 11 days (median time) after with the Assessment of Quality of life at the End of Life (Axelsson & Sjödén 1999). Of 163 eligible patients 63 participated without attrition. Patients' quality of life improved in the physical, psychological, medical and global areas. Six items significantly improved: hours recumbent during the day (P = 0.009), nausea (P = 0.008), anxiety (P = 0.007), getting hold of staff (P = 0.000), received care (P = 0.003) and global quality of life (P = 0.023). Depression/low in mood (r = 0.55) and meaningfulness (r = 0.70) associated to global quality of life. Furthermore, pain (P = 0.028) and meaningfulness (P = 0.028) predicted global quality of life. In the existential area, it is important to further explore how meaningfulness is associated to and predicts global quality of life.

  • 21.
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Patients' quality of life: Living with incurable cancer in palliative homecare2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    My clinical experience is that living in incurable cancer at the end of life is complex to patients and their families. Patients seem to have a rather good quality of life (QoL) but problems related to the progression of the illness constantly challenges and changes QoL. These changes seem to at some points improve or diminish QoL which are distressing to patients and their families. But what meaning do patients give QoL when illness progress? Further, my clinical experience is that QoL assessments are not integrated naturally in the daily care of dying patients and professionals do not ask patients how they apprehend their QoL in general. The overall aim was to explore how QoL is influenced and its importance for patients living with incurable cancer at the end of life, while being cared for at home with support from family caregivers and a palliative homecare team (PHT). The participants lived in the middle of Sweden, and the sample included patients (n=76) who were more or less confined to bed (ECOG PS), cared for by family caregivers (n=4). Mixed methods were used, mainly qualitative methods, analyzed by content analyses. Data collected with quantitative method was analyzed using mainly non-parametric methods. This thesis consists of four empirical papers (I-IV). Major findings illustrated how complex QoL in fact is and that it was essential to patients QoL to be a part of a daily and social life. The last weeks of life was not a calm transitory phase during which patients, family and professionals had time to adjust emotionally. Further, body and mind became more segregated than at any other time during the transition phase. This is strengthened by paper IV with patients in particular, which provided abundant information on different aspects related to the concept of QoL. Moreover, the quantitative study (I) showed that medical care and QoL could actually improve after patients had been designated to a PHT, despite their progressive disease. The social dimension of QoL was more obvious in the qualitative studies with patients (II and IV) and family caregivers (III), and not at all in the quantitative study (I). The existential dimension on the other hand was more evident in paper I and III than in paper II and IV. In addition, the physical and psychological dimensions appeared equally important in all of the papers. Findings also illustrated that some patients with incurable cancer did not regard their QoL as being as negative as one might expect. Positive factors that have been identified for potentially improving QoL was receiving optimal support by family caregivers and optimal symptom control, being able to stay at home, and maintaining as normal an everyday life as possible and being regarded as an autonomous individual.The findings in this thesis also point out the necessity for healthcare professionals in palliative care to seriously discuss what issues patients close to death and their families consider as important for providing an optimal QoL.

  • 22.
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Axelsson, Inge
    Jonsson Grundberg, Marie
    Hallqvist, Frida
    When a child dies: parents' experiences of palliative care-an integrative literature review.2014In: Journal of Pediatric Nursing: Nursing Care of Children and Families, ISSN 0882-5963, E-ISSN 1532-8449, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 660-9, article id S0882-5963(14)00192-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this integrative review was to increase knowledge about parents' experiences of palliative care when their child is dying or has died due to illness using Whittemore and Knafl (2005) analysis process. Computerized databases were used to search the literature. Nine papers met the inclusion criteria. The analysis resulted in five categories: genuine communication, sincere relationships, respect as an expert, and alleviation of suffering and need of support, including 15 subcategories. Health professionals need education to provide high-quality pediatric palliative care. They especially need training concerning existential issues, and further studies need to be performed.

  • 23.
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Day, Annika
    Danderyds sjukhus.
    Axelsson, Inge
    Mittuniversitetet, Östersunds sjukhus.
    Forslund, Ingela
    Helsingborgs lasarett.
    Supportive interventions and their impact on pediatrichealth care professionals’ emotional well-being: Asystematic literature review2014In: Clinical Nursing Studies, ISSN 2324-7940, E-ISSN 2324-7959, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 60-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this systematic literature review was to describe interventions supporting pediatric health care professionals tomanage emotional strain when caring for children at the end-of-life. The review included five quantitative studies. Twocategories were identified within the results: 1) Supportive interventions with the subcategories of educationalinterventions, peer support for grief, intensive training course, peer supported storytelling, and debriefing sessions; and 2)Effects of interventions, with the subcategories of increased understanding, increased confidence, creating meaning, griefmanagement, and sense of well-being. Interventions that combine education and dialogue seem supportive, but debriefingmight have the most impact on health care professionals’ emotional well-being. Future research should focus ondeepening the understanding of the meaning of education and dialogue for health care professionals, further investigate theeffects of debriefing, and focus on educational training around existential issues.

  • 24.
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    Segerbäck, Inger
    Boström, Sara
    Reflections of older people living in nursing homes.2014In: Nursing older people, ISSN 1472-0795, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 33-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To explore experiences of ageing in older people living in nursing homes, based on the gerotranscendence theory.

    METHOD: Interviews were held with 14 people aged between 80 and 96 years. The results were analysed using content analysis.

    FINDINGS: The findings were divided into three categories: the self, the cosmic dimension, and social and personal relationships. These three categories were underpinned by eight subcategories. Most participants described improved knowledge about themselves, decreased concern about body and appearance, acceptance and appreciation of life, and less regard for social norms. A fewer participants described a greater affinity with past generations, or thought that the borders between past and present had become blurred.

    CONCLUSION: This study provides a better understanding of how people experience old age. It also indicates how healthcare professionals could apply the gerotranscendence theory of ageing as a conversation model to enable care to be adjusted according to older people's wishes.

  • 25.
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Henoch, Ingela
    Strang, Susann
    Browall, Maria
    Living in the presence of death: an integrative literature review of relatives' important existential concerns when caring for a severely ill family member.2012In: Open Nursing Journal, ISSN 1874-4346, E-ISSN 1874-4346, Vol. 6, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of this study was to explore relatives' existential concerns when caring for a seriously ill family member as well as to describe interventions that meet these concerns.

    METHODS: In this integrative literature review we assessed and classified 17 papers, 12 qualitative and 5 quantitative. Literature was sought in the databases Cinahl, PubMed, Psykinfo and Web of Science in September 2009 and in March 2010. Search terms used in different combinations were: family, family caregiver, next of kin, relatives, palliative, palliative care, end-of-life care, existential, spirit*. Data were redrawn from the papers results/findings, and synthesized into a new descriptive content.

    RESULTS: The results were categorized from 13 papers exploring relatives' important existential concerns and 4 papers describing interventions aimed to support them in the existential area. A majority of the reviewed papers had been written in Sweden and concerned relatives of patients with cancer. One overarching theme, living in the presence of death, and three categories: responses to life close to death; support when death is near; and beyond the presence of death were created.

    CONCLUSION: There is an urgent demand for large-scale studies using accurate methodology, as well as a need to design qualified investigations regarding the effects of various interventions, and to determine which interventions are the most effective in supporting relatives who experience existential distress manifested physically and/or psychologically. There is also a considerable demand for educational interventions among professionals in various healthcare settings to increase their knowledge regarding existential concerns among relatives.

  • 26.
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Odling, Gunvor
    Axelsson, Bertil
    Danielson, Ella
    The meaning of quality of life: narrations by patients with incurable cancer in palliative home care.2008In: Palliative & Supportive Care, ISSN 1478-9515, E-ISSN 1478-9523, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 231-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this qualitative study was to elucidate the meaning of quality of life as narrated by patients with incurable cancer approaching death in palliative home care in Sweden.

    METHODS: To gain a deeper understanding of what quality of life means for dying patients, data were collected from narrative interviews with eight patients in their homes in 2004-2006. Qualitative content analysis was used to interpret the meaning regarding quality of life.

    RESULTS: Three main themes were found: being in intense suffering, having breathing space in suffering, and being at home. Living with incurable cancer at the end of life was experienced as living in physical distress as the body became incapacitated by unexpected physical complications. This incapacity had consequences on patients' psychological, social, and existential well-being. As the complication phase abated, the patients experienced that they regained hopefulness and had time to reflect on existential issues. Patients were provided affirmative care at home from family caregivers and the palliative home care team.

    SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: This study shows that it is feasible to perform individual interviews with patients approaching death and elucidate the meaning of patients' quality of life in palliative home care. Patients oscillate between being in intense suffering and having breathing space in this suffering, which somewhat opposes the traditional picture of a continuous linear deterioration. Being cared for at home by family caregivers and health care professionals provided a sense of independency and security. Being at home safeguards patients' entire life situation and increases quality of life.

  • 27.
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Palmqvist, Rebecca
    Rönnberg, Linda
    Clinical intuition in the nursing process and decision-making-A mixed-studies review.2017In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 26, no 23-24, p. 3936-3949Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To review what is characteristic of registered nurses' intuition in clinical settings, in relationships and in the nursing process.

    BACKGROUND: Intuition is a controversial concept and nurses believe that there are difficulties in how they should explain their nursing actions or decisions based on intuition. Much of the evidence from the body of research indicates that nurses value their intuition in a variety of clinical settings. More information on how nurses integrate intuition as a core element in daily clinical work would contribute to an improved understanding on how they go about this. Intuition deserves a place in evidence-based activities, where intuition is an important component associated with the nursing process.

    DESIGN: An integrative review strengthened with a mixed-studies review.

    METHODS: Literature searches were conducted in the databases CINAHL, PubMed and PsycINFO, and literature published 1985-2016 were included. The findings in the studies were analysed with content analysis, and the synthesis process entailed a reasoning between the authors.

    RESULTS: After a quality assessment, 16 studies were included. The analysis and synthesis resulted in three categories. The characteristics of intuition in the nurse's daily clinical activities include application, assertiveness and experiences; in the relationships with patients' intuition include unique connections, mental and bodily responses, and personal qualities; and in the nursing process include support and guidance, component and clues in decision-making, and validating decisions.

    CONCLUSION: Intuition is more than simply a "gut feeling," and it is a process based on knowledge and care experience and has a place beside research-based evidence. Nurses integrate both analysis and synthesis of intuition alongside objective data when making decisions. They should rely on their intuition and use this knowledge in clinical practice as a support in decision-making, which increases the quality and safety of patient care.

    RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: We find that intuition plays a key role in more or less all of the steps in the nursing process as a base for decision-making that supports safe patient care, and is a validated component of nursing clinical care expertise.

  • 28.
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet, Mittuniversitetet.
    Öhlén, Joakim
    Koinberg, Ingalill
    Berg, Linda
    Nolbris, Margaretha Jenholt
    The Recovery Process When Participating in Cancer Support and Rehabilitation Programs in Sweden.2015In: Global qualitative nursing research, ISSN 2333-3936, Vol. 2, article id 2333393615595965Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to illuminate the meaning of participating in support and rehabilitation programs described by people diagnosed with cancer. Nineteen persons were interviewed in focus groups and face-to-face. Data were analyzed with a qualitative phenomenological hermeneutical method for researching lived experiences. Interpretation proceeded through three phases: naïve reading, structural analysis, and comprehensive understanding. Three themes were disclosed: receiving support for recovery when being most vulnerable, recapturing capabilities through supportive activities, and searching to find stability and well-being in a changed life situation. Participating in the programs was an existential transition from living in an unpredictable situation that was turned into something meaningful. Recovery did not mean the return to a state of normality; rather, it meant a continuing recovery from cancer treatments and symptoms involving recapturing capabilities and searching for a balance in a forever changed life. This study provides new insights about the experiences of participating in cancer support and rehabilitation programs.

  • 29. Melin-Johansson, Christina
    et al.
    Österlind, Jane
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC.
    Hagelin, Carina Lundh
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC.
    Henoch, Ingela
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Ek, Kristina
    Bergh, Ingrid
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Browall, Maria
    Högskolan i Skövde, Jönköping University.
    Undergraduate nursing students' transformational learning during clinical training.2018In: International Journal of Palliative Nursing, ISSN 1357-6321, E-ISSN 2052-286X, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 184-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Undergraduate nursing students encounter patients at the end of life during their clinical training. They need to confront dying and death under supportive circumstances in order to be prepared for similar situations in their future career.

    AIM: To explore undergraduate nursing students' descriptions of caring situations with patients at the end of life during supervised clinical training.

    METHODS: A qualitative study using the critical incident technique was chosen. A total of 85 students wrote a short text about their experiences of caring for patients at the end of life during their clinical training. These critical incident reports were then analysed using deductive and inductive content analysis.

    FINDINGS: The theme 'students' transformational learning towards becoming a professional nurse during clinical training' summarises how students relate to patients and relatives, interpret the transition from life to death, feel when caring for a dead body and learn end-of-life caring actions from their supervisors.

    IMPLICATIONS: As a preparation for their future profession, students undergoing clinical training need to confront death and dying while supported by trained supervisors and must learn how to communicate about end-of-life issues and cope with emotional stress and grief.

  • 30.
    Melin-Johansson, Titti
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC.
    Egna val och frihetens baksidor2019In: Utsatthet och ansvar: Flickan med svavelstickorna i vår tid / [ed] Gunilla Silfverberg, Stockholm: Appell Förlag , 2019, 1, p. 118-123Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31. Rafii, Forough
    et al.
    Fatemi, Naima Seyed
    Danielson, Ella
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Modanloo, Mahnaz
    Compliance to treatment in patients with chronic illness: A concept exploration.2014In: Iranian journal of nursing and midwifery research, ISSN 1735-9066, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 159-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Patients' compliance to treatment is an important indicator for evaluating the successful management in chronic illnesses. Despite the fact an applicable definition of compliance is required to suitable intervention and research, this concept is not clear and there is no consensus concerning its meaning, definition, and measurement. The aim of this study was to explore the concept of compliance and to formulate a working definition.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Theoretical phase of Schwartz-Barcott and Kim's Hybrid Model of concept analysis was used to analyze the concept of compliance. Data were collected by using literature reviews. Medline, CINAHL, Ovid, Elsevier, Pro Quest and Blackwell databases were searched from 1975 to 2010 using the keywords "Compliance," "Non-compliance," "Adherence," and "Concordance." Articles published in English were selected if they included adult patients with chronic illnesses and reported attributes of compliance; 23 such relevant articles were chosen.

    RESULTS: The attributes of compliance included patient obedience, ability to implement medical advice, flexibility, responsibility, collaboration, participation, and persistence in implementing the advices. Antecedents are organized into two interacting categories: Internal factors refer to the patient, disease, and treatment characteristics and external factors refer to the healthcare professionals, healthcare system, and socioeconomic factors. Compliance may lead to desirable and undesirable consequences. A working definition of compliance was formulated by comparing and contrasting the existing definitions with regard to its attributes which are useful in clinical practice and research.

    CONCLUSIONS: This finding will be useful in clinical practice and research. But this working definition has to be tested in a clinical context and a broad view of its applicability has to be obtained.

  • 32. Rönnberg, Linda
    et al.
    Nilsson, Ulrica
    Hellzén, Ove
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    The Art Is to Extubate, Not to Intubate-Swedish Registered Nurse Anesthetists' Experiences of the Process of Extubation After General Anesthesia.2019In: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing, ISSN 1089-9472, E-ISSN 1532-8473, article id S1089-9472(18)30411-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To describe Registered Nurse Anesthetists' (RNA's) experiences of the process of extubation of the endotracheal tube in patients undergoing general anesthesia.

    DESIGN: A descriptive qualitative design.

    METHODS: This study was conducted in two hospitals with 20 RNAs in total. Data were generated from focus group interviews. Content analysis was used to analyze data.

    FINDINGS: The RNAs' experiences were described within four categories and eight subcategories. The category To be a step ahead includes assessment and preparation, and To be on my toes, their ability to recognize patterns and build a connection. To use situation awareness relates to their use of experience and feelings, and To be alone in a critical moment, to feeling alone in the team and protecting the patient.

    CONCLUSIONS: The RNAs make decisions when to extubate by combining theoretical knowledge, clinical experience, and intuition with the uniqueness of each patient.

  • 33. Sjöström, Rita
    et al.
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Asplund, Ragnar
    Alricsson, Marie
    Barriers to and possibilities of returning to work after a multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme. A qualitative interview study.2011In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 243-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this qualitative study was to explore experiences of sick-listed persons of not returning to work during a six-year period after participation in an extensive multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme.

    PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised ten participants with musculoskeletal disorders, mainly neck and back pain.

    METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed by manifest content analysis.

    RESULTS: This led to identification of three primary categories and six sub-categories, which described the participants' experiences of barriers to and possibilities of returning to work, and indicated what strategies they used to cope with everyday life. The participants described that the main barriers to returning to work were pain and somatic symptoms, fatigue, and not fulfilling the work requirements. Participants considered physical activity a key factor in coping with pain. Most participants thought that they had residual work ability, and could utilise this if they could get a modified job adapted to their own capacity.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the importance of utilising residual working ability at workplaces. Finding flexible work possibilities requires an understanding and supportive attitude on the part of both the employer and the social insurance office.

  • 34. Starlander, Jan
    et al.
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Jonsson, Håkan
    Axelsson, Bertil
    Oral-parenteral conversion factor for morphine in palliative cancer care: a prospective randomized crossover pilot study.2011In: Pain Research and Treatment, ISSN 2090-1542, E-ISSN 2090-1550, Vol. 2011, article id 504034Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. This pilot study clinically tests whether a conversion factor of 2 to 1 is appropriate when changing from oral to parenteral morphine administration in the treatment of cancer-related nociceptive pain and calculates the size of an adequately powered future study. Methods. Eleven outpatients with incurable cancer and well-controlled nociceptive pain were randomly assigned to either intravenous or subcutaneous morphine using half the previous oral 24-hour dose. Each group crossed over after the first three-day period. Serum concentrations of morphine and its metabolites were monitored as well as intensity of pain. Results. Oral to subcutaneous and oral to intravenous quotas of morphine concentrations were approximately 0.9. Subcutaneous to intravenous morphine quotas were 1. Conclusions. The conversion factor of 2 to 1 seems to be a reasonable average but with an obvious need for individual adjustments. Concurrent medications and substantially higher doses of morphine could potentially affect the appropriate conversion factor. An adequately powered study to validate these findings would need at least 121 patients.

  • 35. Strang, Susann
    et al.
    Henoch, Ingela
    Danielson, Ella
    Browall, Maria
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Communication about existential issues with patients close to death--nurses' reflections on content, process and meaning.2014In: Psycho-Oncology, ISSN 1057-9249, E-ISSN 1099-1611, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 562-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Encountering dying patients with implicit existential questions requires the nurses to have positive and comfortable attitude to talking about existential issues. This paper describes the nurses' reflections on existential issues in their communication with patients close to death.

    METHODS: Nurses (n = 98) were recruited from a hospital, hospices and homecare teams. Each nurse participated in five group reflection sessions that were recorded, transcribed and analysed using qualitative content analysis.

    RESULTS: Three domains and nine themes emerged. The content domain of the existential conversation covered living, dying and relationships. The process domain dealt with using conversation techniques to open up conversations, being present and confirming. The third domain was about the meaning of existential conversation for nurses. The group reflections revealed a distinct awareness of the value of sensitivity and supportive conversations.

    CONCLUSION: This study supports the assertion that experience of talking about existential issues and supporting environment make nurses comfortable when counselling patients close to death. It was obvious from this study that having the courage to be present and confirming, having time and not trying to 'solve' every existential problem were the most important factors in conversations with the patients close to death.

  • 36. Udo, C
    et al.
    Melin-Johansson, C
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Henoch, I
    Axelsson, B
    Danielson, E
    Surgical nurses' attitudes towards caring for patients dying of cancer - a pilot study of an educational intervention on existential issues.2014In: European Journal of Cancer Care, ISSN 0961-5423, E-ISSN 1365-2354, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 426-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a randomised controlled pilot study using a mixed methods design. The overall aim was to test an educational intervention on existential issues and to describe surgical nurses' perceived attitudes towards caring for patients dying of cancer. Specific aims were to examine whether the educational intervention consisting of lectures and reflective discussions, affects nurses' perceived confidence in communication and to explore nurses' experiences and reflections on existential issues after participating in the intervention. Forty-two nurses from three surgical wards at one hospital were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. Nurses in both groups completed a questionnaire at equivalent time intervals: at baseline before the educational intervention, directly after the intervention, and 3 and 6 months later. Eleven face-to-face interviews were conducted with nurses directly after the intervention and 6 months later. Significant short-term and long-term changes were reported. Main results concerned the significant long-term effects regarding nurses' increased confidence and decreased powerlessness in communication, and their increased feelings of value when caring for a dying patient. In addition, nurses described enhanced awareness and increased reflection. Results indicate that an understanding of the patient's situation, derived from enhanced awareness and increased reflection, precedes changes in attitudes towards communication.

  • 37. Udo, Camilla
    et al.
    Danielson, Ella
    Henoch, Ingela
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Surgical nurses' work-related stress when caring for severely ill and dying patients in cancer after participating in an educational intervention on existential issues.2013In: European Journal of Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1462-3889, E-ISSN 1532-2122, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 546-53, article id S1462-3889(13)00022-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of this study was to describe surgical nurses' perceived work-related stress in the care of severely ill and dying patients with cancer after participating in an educational intervention on existential issues.

    METHODS AND SAMPLE: This article reports a mixed methods pilot study of an education programme consisting of lectures and supervised discussions conducted in 2009-2010 in three surgical wards in a county hospital in Sweden. The concurrent data collections consisted of repeated interviews with eleven nurses in an educational group, and questionnaires were distributed to 42 nurses on four occasions.

    RESULTS: Directly after the educational intervention, the nurses described working under high time pressure. They also described being hindered in caring because of discrepancies between their caring intentions and what was possible in the surgical care context. Six months later, the nurses described a change in decision making, and a shift in the caring to make it more in line with their own intentions and patients' needs rather than the organizational structure. They also reported decreased feelings of work-related stress, decreased stress associated with work-load and feeling less disappointed at work.

    CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that it may be possible to influence nurses' work-related stress through an educational intervention. According to nurses' descriptions, reflecting on their ways of caring for severely ill and dying patients, many of whom had cancer, from an existential perspective, had contributed to enhanced independent decision making in caring. This in turn appears to have decreased their feelings of work-related stress and disappointment at work.

  • 38.
    Udo, Camilla
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Danielson, Ella
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Melin Johansson, Christina
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Existential Reflections among Nurses in Surgical Care2010In: Journal of Palliative Care, ISSN 0825-8597, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 228-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To gain a deeper understanding of surgical nurses’ experiences of existential issues in cancer care.

    Methods: Written critical incidents were used to collect nurses’ descriptions and reflections of critical care situations involving existential issues. Individual face-to-face interviews were conducted as follow-up using semi-structured questions which were analysed with hermeneutical analysis.

    Preliminary results: The analysis showed that nurses in surgical care experience caring from different positions. Nurses either focus on the patient as a whole in the caring process or nurses focus more on medical information in the caring process. When focusing on the patient as a whole existential issues are considered to be a natural part of the caring process and nurses’ personal experiences help to enable encounters with the patients. When focusing more on the medical information in the caring process there was a transfer of responsibility to others, mainly the physicians.

    Preliminary conclusions: This study highlights that existential issues are indeed part of surgical cancer care derived from existential care situations. Nurses’ focus in the caring process differs. Nurses express different positions in caring and not all acknowledge patients’ existential issues as part of nurses’ responsibility. When lacking common strategies in the organization nurses derive existential caring strategies from personal experiences.

  • 39. Udo, Camilla
    et al.
    Danielson, Ella
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Existential issues among nurses in surgical care--a hermeneutical study of critical incidents.2013In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 69, no 3, p. 569-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: To report a qualitative study conducted to gain a deeper understanding of surgical nurses' experiences of existential care situations. Background.  Existential issues are common for all humans irrespective of culture or religion and constitute man's ultimate concerns of life. Nurses often lack the strategies to deal with patients' existential issues even if they are aware of them.

    DESIGN: This is a qualitative study where critical incidents were collected and analysed hermeneutically.

    METHODS: During June 2010, ten surgical nurses presented 41 critical incidents, which were collected for the study. The nurses were first asked to describe existential care incidents in writing, including their own emotions, thoughts, and reactions. After 1-2 weeks, individual interviews were conducted with the same nurses, in which they reflected on their written incidents. A hermeneutic analysis was used.

    FINDINGS: The majority of incidents concerned nurses' experiences of caring for patients' dying of cancer. In the analysis, three themes were identified, emphasizing the impact of integration between nurses' personal self and professional role in existential care situations: inner dialogues for meaningful caring, searching for the right path in caring, and barriers in accompanying patients beyond medical care.

    CONCLUSION: Findings are interpreted and discussed in the framework of Buber's philosophy of the relationships I-Thou and I-It, emphasizing nurses' different relationships with patients during the process of caring. Some nurses integrate their personal self into caring whereas others do not. The most important finding and new knowledge are that some nurses felt insecure and were caught somewhere in between I-Thou and I-It.

  • 40. Udo, Camilla
    et al.
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    Danielson, Ella
    Existential issues among health care staff in surgical cancer care - discussions in supervision sessions.2011In: European Journal of Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1462-3889, E-ISSN 1532-2122, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 447-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim was, through analysis of dialogues in supervision sessions, to explore if health care staff in surgical care discussed existential issues when caring for cancer patients.

    METHOD: A secondary analysis of the content of twelve tape-recorded supervision sessions (18 h) was conducted. The study analysed the dialogue content in supervision sessions involving a group of eight participants who worked at a surgical clinic at a county hospital in central Sweden. The sessions were held every third week during the course of one year.

    RESULTS: The analysis showed that surgical health care staff contemplates existential issues. The staff discussed their existential dilemmas, which hindered them from meeting and dealing with patients' existential questions. This is illustrated in the themes: "feelings of powerlessness", "identifying with patients", and "getting close or keeping one's distance". The staff also discussed the fact that patients expressed existential distress, which is illustrated in the themes: "feelings of despair" and "feelings of isolation".

    CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that there are existential issues at a surgical clinic which health care staff need to acknowledge. The staff find themselves exposed to existential dilemmas when caring for cancer patients. They are conscious of patients' existential issues, but lack strategies for dealing with this. This study highlights a need to provide support to staff for developing an existential approach, which will boost their confidence in their encounters with patients.

  • 41.
    Ulff, Eva
    et al.
    Länssjukhuset Ryhov, Region Jönköpings län.
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Maroti, Marianne
    Länssjukhuset Ryhov, Region Jönköpings län.
    Koinberg, Ingalill
    Göteborgs universitet.
    How Patient Involvement Can Contribute to the Development of Information Materials About Malignant Melanoma for Healthy Older Men2016In: Home Health Care Management & Practice, ISSN 1084-8223, E-ISSN 1552-6739, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 9-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The incidence for malignant melanoma (MM) in older men is 3 to 4 times higher than the rest of the population. Patient information about MM could be a way to reach men. The aim of the study was to design and develop a pamphlet in collaboration with older men. The study was conducted in two steps. In the first step, 73 men were interviewed; in the second step, the pamphlets were sent out to 306 men. All men were recruited in connection with an aorta screening. Men wanted concisely written information with illustrations and 85% of the men reported that they have read the pamphlet. The study demonstrates a cost-effective method to reach out with information to older men.

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