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  • 251.
    Benzein, Eva
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Johansson, Pauline
    Arestedt, Kristofer Franzén
    Saveman, Britt-Inger
    Nurses' attitudes about the importance of families in nursing care: a survey of Swedish nurses2008In: Journal of Family Nursing, ISSN 1074-8407, E-ISSN 1552-549X, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 162-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of registered nurses (RNs) about the importance of involving families in nursing care. A sample of 634 randomly selected Swedish RNs completed the instrument, Families' Importance in Nursing Care-Nurses' Attitudes (FINC-NA), and reported holding supportive attitudes about families. High scores were found for the subscales: family as a resource in nursing care, family as a conversational partner, family as a burden, and family as its own resource. Variables that predicted a less supportive attitude about involving families in nursing care included being a newly graduated nurse, having no general approach to the care of families at the place of work, and being a male nurse.

  • 252.
    Benzein, Eva
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Norberg, Astrid
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Palliative Research Centre, PRC.
    Sahlberg Blom, Eva
    Örebro Universitet.
    Ternestedt, Britt-Marie
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Palliative Research Centre, PRC.
    Andershed, Birgitta
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Palliative Research Centre, PRC.
    Ett vårdvetenskapligt perspektiv på forskning i livets slutskede: erfarenheter från Sverige2009In: Omsorg: Nordisk tidsskrift for Palliativ Medisin, ISSN 0800-7489, no 4, p. 19-22Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikel belyser kortfattat utvecklingen av vårdvetenskaplig forskning om vård i livets slutskede i Sverige från 1970-talet fram till idag. Den visar en ökning av forskningen när det gäller den döende personens, närståendes och personalens perspektiv. Vidare beskrivs exempel på forskning som bedrivs vid Enheten för forskning om vård i livets slutskede vid Ersta Sköndal högskola; en forskningsmiljö som kunnat formaliseras till innehåll och struktur med hjälp av en donation. Exempel ges på projekt med beskrivande och intervenerande designer. Områden som behöver studeras ytterligare är individers/familjens situation i samband med döende och död, döende personer med demenssjukdom och döende och död ur ett mångkulturellt perspektiv och ur ett genusperspektiv. Större mångvetenskapliga forskningsprojekt behövs. En stor utmaning är också att överbrygga gapet mellan forskning och klinisk verksamhet.

  • 253.
    Benzein, Eva
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Saveman, Britt-Inger
    2nd Nordic Family Nursing Conference in Kalmar, Sweden: A brief report.2006In: Journal of Family Nursing, ISSN 1074-8407, E-ISSN 1552-549X, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 344-5Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 254.
    Berg, Johanna
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Wattman, Anette
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Den cancersjuke patientens sexualitet: en viktig aspekt i omvårdnaden1998Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 255. Berg, Katarina
    et al.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Palliative Reserch Centre, PRC. Linnéuniversitetet.
    Kjellgren, Karin
    Postoperative recovery from the perspective of day surgery patients: A phenomenographic study2013In: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 50, no 12, p. 1630-1638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Today, many patients undergo surgical procedures in a day surgery setting. The shift from inpatient care to care at the patients' own home following discharge places various demands on patients and their families during the recovery process. There is a need for knowledge of how the postoperative recovery process is perceived, as research indicates a lack of support for patients managing recovery at home.

    Objective: To explore day surgery patients' different perceptions of postoperative recovery.

    Design: A qualitative design with a phenomenographic approach was used.

    Methods and settings: Semi-structured interviews with 31 patients undergoing an orthopaedic, general or urologic day surgical procedure were carried out face to face at the patients' homes, 11-37 days post-discharge. Patients were recruited from two day surgery settings: one private unit and one unit associated with a local county hospital.

    Results: The patients perceived postoperative recovery as comprising internal and external prerequisites and implying changes in ordinary life with varying levels of support. The effective production at the day surgery unit was perceived as having an impact on patients' prerequisites for recovery. The results are elucidated in three descriptive categories: 'Conditions for recovery at home', 'The rollback to ordinary life' and 'Being a cog in a flow of care'.

    Conclusions: The postoperative phase seems to be a weak link in day surgery care. From the patients' perspective, postoperative recovery following day surgery implies extensive responsibility at home. Patients need knowledge and understanding concerning what constitutes the normal range in recovery and how to manage self-care following their specific surgical procedure. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 256.
    Berg, Linda
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Nolbris, Margaretha Jenholt
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Koinberg, Ingalill
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Möller, Anders
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Social Sciences. Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Öhlen, Joakim
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Characterisation of cancer support and rehabilitation programmes: a Swedish multiple case study.2014In: Open Nursing Journal, ISSN 1874-4346, E-ISSN 1874-4346, Vol. 8, article id TONURSJ-8-1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cancer support and rehabilitation are suggested to be an integral part of cancer care strategies. This study focuses on comparativeness of cancer support and rehabilitation programmes. The aim of this study was to analyse available cancer support and rehabilitation programmes in Sweden presented as complementary to cancer rehabilitation at cancer clinics. A multiple case study design was chosen in order to inquire the small number of existing supportive and rehabilitative cancer programmes. Based on the structures, processes and outcomes of the nine included programmes, three types of cancer support and rehabilitation programmes were identified: multimodal rehabilitation, comprehensive cancer support and art therapy. Cancer support and rehabilitation programmes offer a variety of activities and therapies which are highly valuable and relevant for people with cancer. The typology of cancer support and rehabilitation programmes and comparability between programmes need further inquiry.

  • 257.
    Berg, Simon
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Mansour, Maxim
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Faktorer som påverkar upplevt välbefinnande hos patienter inom den palliativa hemsjukvården: en litteraturöversikt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The development of society and the ongoing medical change have contributed to the development of palliative home care. It has become increasingly common for patients to choose to be treated palliatively at home. One of the key concepts in healthcare is the well-being, this term can be seen as a subjective concept and closely linked to quality of life. Well-being means experiencing mild suffering and being satisfied with their life situation. Healthcare professionals working in palliative home care describe several factors that they consider to be of importance to the patient's experience of well-being and good palliative care.

    Aim: To illuminate affecting factors of well-being in adult patients in the palliative home care.

    Method: This degree project has been carried out as a literature review where 13 scientific articles have been studied. The articles were analyzed by Friberg’s method and the foundations and differences regarding the patient's perception of well-being were presented in three themes.

    Results: Based on analysis of scientific articles, three themes were created: relationships, hope and a secure base. The perception of well-being in patients proved to be linked to factors affecting a secure base, hope and relationships.

    Discussion: The method was discussed based on the chosen method and the articles strengths and weaknesses. The result was discussed based on other studies in the same areas as well as Calista Roy’s adaptation model.

  • 258.
    Bergbom, Katarina
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Blomberg, Klara
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Kvinnors omvårdnadsbehov efter bröstcanceroperation2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 259.
    Bergdahl, Elisabeth
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Palliativ omvårdnad ur ett estetiskt perspektiv2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 260.
    Bergdahl, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Norge.
    Ternestedt, Britt-Marie
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköpings universitet.
    Andershed, Birgitta
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Norge.
    The theory of a co-creative process in advanced palliative home care nursing encounters: A qualitative deductive approach over time.2019In: Nursing open, ISSN 2054-1058, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 175-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and objectives: The aim of this study was to test the theoretical conceptualization of the co-creative process in home care nursing encounters over time.

    Method and design: This was a multiple case study with a deductive analysis of qualitative data over time, using interviews and observations collected from three cases.

    Results: The co-creative process was complex and contained main, sub- and micro-processes. Time was important and valuable, giving the patient and relatives space to adjust the process to their own pace. Some processes were worked on more intensively in accordance with the patients' and relatives' needs, and these are considered the main-process. The further developed theory of the co-creative process and its main, sub- and microprocesses can be understood as a concretization of how good nursing care can be performed within caring relationships in the context of advanced palliative home care.

  • 261.
    Bergdahl, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Wikström, Britt-Maj
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Andershed, Birgitta
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of palliative care research.
    Esthetic abilities: a way to describe abilities of expert nurses in palliative home care.2007In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 752-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of this paper is to focus on the abilities needed to create the caring relation in palliative home care and to find ways to describe these abilities and skills from an esthetic perspective. BACKGROUND: Nurses in Palliative home care have to create a functioning relationship between themselves the patient and the patient's next of kin, this puts special demands on the nurse. A number of abilities, such as creativity, intuition, empathy and self-knowledge are mentioned in literature related to the caring relation. Many nursing theorists have referred to the art and esthetic of nursing when trying to describe these abilities. METHODS: Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with eight expert nurses in palliative home care. The transcribed interviews were analysed using qualitative content analyses. FINDINGS: Three main categories where found: The will to do good, Knowledge and Perceptiveness. Subcategories that can be seen as abilities where found in the main categories knowledge and perceptiveness. CONCLUSIONS: The main categories can be seen as expressions for abilities, personal qualities and skills needed to create the caring relation in palliative home care. We found interesting connections between the three main categories and the concepts of esthetics, ethics and science. We also found that nurses develop in a way, i.e. similar to an artist. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The concepts brought forward in this paper could be used in clinical supervision and education as well as in clinical practice. If nurses think about the three aspects: Knowledge, the will to do good and perceptiveness, the chance for a positive relation between the nurse and the patient, and the patient's next of kin might increase. One could speculate that perceptiveness is a vital ability in order to achieve the expert level of nursing and that this perspective should be taken in consideration when recruiting nurses and in curriculum development.

  • 262.
    Bergdahl, Johan
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Matilda, Ekdahl
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans upplevelser av beslut angående livsuppehållande behandling inom akut- och intensivvård: En litteraturöversikt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Every year around 400 000 patients arrives at the emergency wards on the hospitals in Stockholm. Emergency and intensive cares purpose is to take care of acute cases of illness and accidents, and the most prioritized cases ends up within the intensive care units, ICU. Intensive care regards specialized medical staff and modern medicinaltechnology equipment. Nurses task involves promoting the patients’ health, with a unique knowledge about the human with a holistic view, with an attitude well-founded in ethics. Nurses within the intensive care units use life-sustaining treatments and measures from respirators to medicines to save lifes. In spite of this, approximately every fifth patient who is hospitalized in the intensive care unit passes away, and many patients condition can be so critical that communication isn’t an option. Nurses within emergency and intensive care comes across a lot of obstacles in their profession to nurse the patients’ health and might have to perform life-sustaining treatments without approval from the patients.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to understand the   nurses experiences and how nurses handle descisions regarding life-sustaining   treatments on patients within emegergency and intensive care.

    Method: The authors made a litterature   review of allready existing data from scientificle articles, to summerize   nurses different experiences regarding descisions of life-sustatining   treatment, and how the nurses handle these situations.

    Results: Nurses described different   obstacles regarding deciscions of life-sustaining treatment which caused emotional   stress. The authors identified these obstacles as communication, cooperation,   planing, environment and an emotional weight. Nurses could find a purpose and   context in thier role as experts of caring even though there was a decision   about ending life-sustaining treatment on terminal patients.

    Discussion: The authours discussed the   choise of method for this study and the different obstacles, experiences and   how the nurses handle psychological and emotional stress, from litterature,   scientifical articales and Aaron Antonovsky’s contexttheory and Callista Roy’s theory about adaptation.

  • 263.
    Bergendahl, Mats
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Henrik, Berns
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Vårdpersonalens attityder gentemot patienter med schizofrenidiagnos: En litteraturöversikt2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Schizophrenia is characterized by a distorted perception of reality, where a person must have had a psychosis that lasted longer than six months. Dominant in the disorder is disoriented thinking and voice hallucinations, even if it´s primarily a cognitive disease and it manifests itself mostly on a behavioral and emotional level. Attitudes towards schizophrenics have in recent years generally improved in the Swedish society and in health care departments. Yet negative attitudes are still prevalent. An attitude is a perception that forms itself against a certain phenomenon, a person's intentional and unintentional feeling toward a person or thing, and it may be positive or negative. A better understanding of the factors that influence attitudes and how they occur may contribute to that the negative attitudes decrease.

    Objective: To describe the approach to and aspects of attitudes towards patients with a schizophrenia diagnosis.

    Method: Eleven quantitative articles were analyzed to see which factors contribute to the development of attitudes, the search of articles were made in a variety ofnursing science and medical databases. The articles were then processed to obtain common key themes.

    Results: Showed that the attitudes of the emergence and prevalence differ between health care institutions and between nations. Where ethnic and cultural background, gender, education levels, workplace and work experience of the staff are factors that strongly influences attitudes, both in a positive and negative way. Caregivers also perceive patients as dangerous and untrustworthy.

    Discussion: Nurse's attitude towards patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia is a highly personal and a person's individual attitude, which is influenced by various socio-demographic factors. This is discussed from Travelbees Human-To-Human Relationship Model and the nursing science consensus concept environment. 

  • 264.
    Bergfors, Sofi
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Olsson, Maja
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Att handskas med händer: en observationsstudie om handhygien i Tanzania2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 265.
    Berggren Appelgren, Meta
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Hoffman, Kristina
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Den icke verbala kommunikationens betydelse för interaktionen mellan sjuksköterska och patient2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 266.
    Berggren, Pia
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Källman Carlsson, Annette
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans attityder och omvårdnadsåtgärder för patienter med alkoholproblematik: en litteraturstudie2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 267.
    Bergheden, Lisa
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Informerat samtycke: möjligheter och hinder i vård och omvårdnad2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 268.
    Bergholm, Maria
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Castensson, Malin
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Patienters upplevelse av mjuk massage i vården: en litteraturöversikt2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 269.
    Bergius, Anki
    et al.
    Drottning Silvias barn- och ungdomssjukhus, Göteborg.
    Palmqvist, Gunilla
    Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset, Göteborg.
    Holm, Ann-Kristin
    Göteborgs universitet, Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset.
    Öhlén, Joakim
    Göteborgs universitet, Karolinska institutet.
    Stödverksamhet för barn som förlorat en förälder: En litteraturstudie2004In: Vård i Norden, ISSN 0107-4083, E-ISSN 1890-4238, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 41-44Article, review/survey (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with this literature review was to describe content, objectives, design, and outcomes of support groups for parentally bereaved children three to twelve years of age. In a support group with children in similar situation the children's thoughts, experiences and feelings will be normalised through different activities. Pedagogical methods include creative activities of different kinds, e.g. painting, writing letters and poems, reading stories, play and games. The purposes of the methods are to accept and understand the reality of the loss, to understand and work through the grieving, to enhance family communication, and to keep the memory of the death and go on living. Organisation and structure are described in relation to development levels and ages of children and youths. Outcomes of groups are characterized by clinical observations and a dearth of evaluative studies. All bereaved children should have the opportunity to participate in a support group when a parent, sibling or other relative dies. Well developed services for bereaved children should be a matter of health care policy and quality.

  • 270.
    Bergius, Anthon
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Jonasson, Vilhelm
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Med patienten i fokus: En litteraturstudie om fördelar och nackdelar av bedsiderapportering inom sjukvården2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Shift change report between nurses is an operation carried out at the beginning and end of each shift. Today, shift change report is usually carried out through an oral or silent report in the patient’s absence, e.g. in the nurses’ office. During bedside report the shift transfer is instead carried out with the patient present, i.e. by the bedside.

    To illuminate advantages and disadvantages with bedside report and how bedside report can influence patient participation and patient safety.

    A general literature study was conducted. Eight qualitative and two quantitative articles were selected and analyzed. Key terms and common occurring aspects were noted and were grouped to create categories.

    The three main themes were “Information & Communication”, “Health-care relationship” and “Confidentiality & Integrity”. The results showed that nurses, patients and relatives overall had a positive experience of bedside report. The advantages were that patients and nurses could clarify information and ask questions to each other, the healthcare relationship was strengthened and the patients’ experiences of participation increased. Common disadvantages were that patients’ integrity became threatened when others could hear what was being said during bedside report, and that the medical jargon which is often used, could be difficult to understand.

    There is a strong indication that bedside report promotes patient safety and patient participation as well as strengthens the patient-care provider relationship. From the point of view of Antonovsky´s KASAM theory it can be assumed that when patients are given the opportunity to be involved during the shift change, their sense of coherence can increase, mainly because their sense of comprehensibility increases.

  • 271.
    Bergklo, Eva
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Nylander, Christina
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Den äldres transition och sjuksköterskans roll2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 272.
    Berglund, Anna
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Fält, Kristina
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av bemötandet från vårdpersonal efter våld i nära relation: En litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Intimate partner violence includes psychological, physical and sexual violence that occur between individuals in close relation to each other. It is a public health problem that deteriorates health for the vulnerable. Women who are exposed to violence often come into contact with the health care system because of the damage sustained, but health personnel feel that they have insufficient knowledge in the matter.

    Aim: The aim was to illuminate how the women exposed to intimate partner violence by a male partner experienced treatment of the health personnel.

    Method: A literature review has been carried out. Ten qualitative scientific articles taken from the database PubMed and CINAHL Complete have been used as a basis for the result.

    Results: Five themes appeared in the result. Doubts for seeking care, To receive questions from healthcare staff, Attitudes and treatment from healthcare staff, Lack of privacy and time and Being affirmed, heard and taken seriously.

    Discussion: The overall findings of the result about the importance of healthcare professionals asking whether violence in close relationship, time shortage in healthcare and person –centered care discussed. The discussion is conducted in relation to background of the literature review, other relevant researches, the author’s own reflections and Katie Eriksson’s perspective on suffering and the nurse’s attitude towards the suffering person.

  • 273.
    Berglund, Carina
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Människan, verkligheten och omvårdnaden: en kvalitativ studie av intensivvårdssjuksköterskors livsåskådning2001Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 274.
    Bergman, Anna
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Davidsson, Inger
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Betydelsen av sjuksköterskans närvaro vid malignitetsbesked2000Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 275.
    Bergman, Erika
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Täckholm Wiblom, Fanny
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    COMPASSION FATIGUE BLAND SJUKSKÖTERSKOR: EN LITTERATURÖVERSIKT ÖVER FAKTORER SOM KAN BIDRA TILL DESS UTVECKLANDE2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: There is currently a shortage of nursing staff in Sweden. Following on from a population increase, this shortage is expected to increase in upcoming years. According to 2014 statistics, one out of ten licensed nurses do not work within a healthcare setting, and one of the main contributing factors to this is stress. Stress is also the main reason for sick leave among nurses. A fairly new concept in Sweden, Compassion Fatigue, is a condition of secondary traumatic stress, which affects healthcare professionals. This condition is relatively unexplored in Sweden.

    AIM: The aim of this literature review was to shed light onhighlight factors that may impact on the development of compassion fatigue among nurses.

    METHOD: A literature review according to Friberg’s method which was based on seven quantitative studies, two qualitative studies and one study of mixed methods.

    RESULTS: The results are presented based on five main categories: Demographic factors (age, gender and marital status); Environmental factors (importance of leadership, work load and staff turnover); Occupational factors (level of education, professional experience, working hours and department); Coping (healthy and unhealthy management strategies); Acknowledgement and support (from colleagues, management and relatives).

    DISCUSSION: A lack of knowledge about Compassion Fatigue among nurses as well as management is the main reason for its developtment. Education and supportive measures, based on Watson’s theory of human caring, can be used to prevent Compassion Fatigue.

  • 276.
    Bergman, Jon
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Morén, Malin
    Att vårda en patient med HIV/AIDS: En litteraturöversikt över attityder hos vårdpersonal2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Approximately 30 million people have died over the years due to HIV/AIDS. HIV/AIDS is recognized as a pandemic and statistics show that Africa is one of the most affected continents. HIV/AIDS puts on great demands on health care and studies indicate that negative attitudes against HIV/AIDS patients are common in health care settings.

    Aim:

    To describe the attitudes of health professionals caring for patients with HIV/AIDS.

    Methods:

    The study is a literature review. A literature search was done in databases which resulted in 13 articles that related to our aim. The articles were analyzed and sorted into categories.

    Results:

    The result was divided into categories; caregivers attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS, knowledge related to HIV/AIDS, risk of infection and universal precautions. The results show that it exists negative attitudes in health care settings towards people living with HIV/AIDS which correlates with the large knowledge gap about the disease. The lack of knowledge is great in areas with high prevalence of HIV/AIDS, such as Africa. Positive attitudes were associated with high educational qualifications and experience from caring for patients with HIV/AIDS.

    Discussions:

    It is important that caregivers are trained about HIV/AIDS to raise awareness and thereby eliminate the negative attitudes which today exist against people living with HIV/AIDS. Establishment of support groups is important so that health professionals can meet and discuss their feelings and experiences through so-called counselling. All patients should be treated equally in order to strengthen their dignity which otherwise gets violated by negative attitudes.

  • 277.
    Bergman, Love
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Britton, Asabea
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Nurse's experiences of leprosy related stigma in Ghana2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Leprosy has long been associated with stigma and the disease causes a lot of suffering to those affected, not only physically but also emotionally and psychologically due to the effects of stigma.

    Aim: To describe the nurse’s experiences of leprosy related stigma in the Central Region of Ghana.

    Methods: A qualitative interview study with semi-structured interviews. Seven individual interviews were conducted four with nurses working at a hospital, specializing in leprosy care, at in the Central Region of Ghana. The data was analyzed using a content analysis based on Graneheim and Lundmans concept.

    Results: The nurses described an exclusion affecting leprosy patients because of their disease. Significant factors, such as lack of knowledge and social circumstances, could be linked to leprosy related stigma.

    Discussions: The result was discussed using Watson's theory of human, referring to eight of her ten carative factors. Three main subjects were identified and discussed related to the result. These were educational factors, social factors and stigmatization.

  • 278.
    Bergman, Love
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Britton, Asabea
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Kneck, Åsa
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Health-related stigma related to leprosy: What can be learned from nurses in Ghana?2018In: Nordic journal of nursing research, ISSN 2057-1585, E-ISSN 2057-1593, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 96-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to describe nurses’ experiences of how stigma affected the care and health of patients with leprosy. Health-related stigma exists worldwide and affects patients, relatives and caregivers. Mere word ‘leprosy’ is often met with disgust, shame and fear. Knowledge of health-related stigma is important for developing care in different parts of the world. The study has a qualitative, descriptive design. Seven semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with nurses working at a hospital specializing in leprosy care. The study was carried out in the central region of Ghana. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The findings are presented as one theme, ‘Increased knowledge and holistic interventions are important in care for patients with leprosy’, and three sub-themes: ‘knowledge and beliefs are intimately interlaced with leprosy-related stigma’, ‘information is important but not enough to change behaviours and attitudes’ and ‘long-term interventions in a social context’. We conclude that caring for patients with leprosy involved long-term interventions, not at least in relation to education on a society level as well as concerning patients’ abilities to learn a skill to make an income in order to be less dependent on healthcare facilities.

  • 279.
    Bergman, Malin
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av fatigue i palliativ vård2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 280.
    Bergman, Patrick
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Söderberg, Ola
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Bemötande av traumatiskt krisdrabbade: sjuksköterskans handlingsberedskap i ambulanssjukvården2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 281.
    Bergman, Sofia
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Pihlblad, Jeanette
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Upplevelser av mjuk massage ur ett patientperspektiv: En litteraturöversikt2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Methods such as massage can be traced all the way from ancient Greece and the Roman Empire in the writings of Hippocrates. Hippocrates felt that through various "rubbingprocesses” could treat some medical conditions. Recent research has shown, for example, that patients who suffered a stroke and had a massage while in the hospital improved their abilities to carry out activities of daily living faster than the control group.

    Aim: The aim was to describe patients' experiences of soft tissue massage in health care.

    Method: This literature review is based on ten qualitative and one quantitative article which were found in the database Cinahl. Friberg's method of analysis has been used when the authors analyzed the articles. Keywords: touch, experience, care, touching, patient, nursing, nurs*, massage, tactile, tactile massage, soft tissue massage and aromatherapy. In the discussion the results were linked to the theoretical point that is Katie Erikssons nursing theory and the nursing concept “care”.

    Results: The results revealed four themes, one of which has two subthemes. In the first theme, The relationship to the massage giver, the patients describe the relationship and feelings toward the massage giver. This theme has two subthemes: Trust and connectedness and Feel cared for and special. The second theme, To be here and now, is about the mental relaxation, the participants felt that they were given by the massage. The third theme, Bodily well-being, is about the participants' various positive physical experiences. The fourth and final theme, Negative aspects, is about what the participants experienced as negative during the massage.

    Discussions: The discussion is anchored in two theoretical points which are Katie Erikson's theory of nursing, Trim, Playing and Learning, and the consensus concept Care. The debate focuses on the main findings of the result. These concepts are discussed along with some of the main findings of the results. Touch, intimacy and warmth characterize the trim and here the corporeal pleasure is an important element. Soft massage can be seen as part of the trim in the care, as it can be done with the aim of creating physical as well as mental relaxation and well-being of the patient.

  • 282.
    Bergman, Therese
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Hallén, Ulrika
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Äldres upplevelser vid akut konfusion i samband med kirurgiska ingrepp2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 283.
    Bergqvist, Christina
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Nordin, Ann-Catrine
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Patientinformation utifrån sjuksköterskans yrkesansvar1998Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 284.
    Bergsmeds, Veronica
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Hedlund, Annelie
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Att leva med migrän: En litteraturöversikt om personers erfarenheter2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Migraines are a common disease which means more than classical headache, since it is both chronic and hereditary. How migraines are experienced varies from individual to individual. The disease has been known since ages, and according to the research, it occurs more often in women than in men. The process of diagnosing migraine is often long because of lack of knowledge and the disease is not a priority in health care. 

    Aim: To describe people's experiences of living with migraine.

    Method: The articles were analyzed and reviewed according to Friberg's method for literature review and resulted in two themes.

    Results: In the analysis, the authors of the literature review identified the individuals who participated in the studies constantly experiencing and saying that migraines are not taken seriously by caregivers, employers and sometimes even from other environments. The disease, the process of obtaining a diagnosis, having to change lifestyle and being limited is something that awakens emotions.

    Discussion: The authors chose to discuss the result based on Katie Eriksson's Caritative Care Theory. The basis of the caritative care theory is the love of the individual, which means that the nurse should walk with that suffering and relieve her suffering to achieve as optimal health as possible. Linked to Katie Eriksson's theory led to lack of understanding, knowledge and treatment of caregiver and other surroundings for an unjustified care-ward.

  • 285.
    Bergström, Annie
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Brundin, Elin
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Att förlora en anhörig i demenssjukdom: En beskrivning av anhörigas upplevelse av demenssjukdom2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Eftersom risken för att drabbasav demenssjukdom ökar med stigande ålder och antalet äldre i Sverige ökar kanman även förvänta sig att antalet anhörigvårdare ökar. Sjukdomen framtvingarrollförändringar som ger stora påfrestningar på familjen. Anhörigvårdaren ärett stort och viktigt stöd inte bara för den demenssjuke utan också församhället. De utför ett betydande arbete som kommunen annars hade behövtutföra.

    Syfte: Syftet är att beskriva anhörigasupplevelser av att vårda en person med demenssjukdom.

    Metod: Studien är en litteraturstudiebaserad på vetenskapliga artiklar med både kvalitativ och kvantitativ metod.Elva artiklar har analyserats enligt Fribergs analysmodell. Analysenresulterade i fyra huvudkategorier: En annorlunda arbetsfördelning i hemmet,Ett ansvar som sträcker sig över dygnets alla timmar, En sorg att förlora enanhörig samt Anhörigvårdarens sätt att finna tid till återhämtning. 

    Resultat: Resultatet visar attanhörigvårdare genomgått en rollförändring från att vara en jämlik partner tillatt få ge upp det mesta av det egna livet och istället vara en omhändertagandevårdare. Att vårda en partner är ett ansvar som sträcker sig över dygnets alla24 timmar. Anhörigvårdarna upplevde sorg, förluster och känslorav otillräcklighet, men mitt i lidandet fanns också känslor av glädje ochnärhet.

    Diskussion:Flertalet anhörigvårdare menar att desaknade adekvat information från sjukvården om demenssjukdom, symtom ochsjukdomsförloppet, både skriftligt och muntligt. Eftersom många äldretolkar förändringarna som ett tecken på normalt åldrande eller som någotövergående som kan kopplas till tidigare livserfarenheter finns ett stort behovav kunskap om demenssjukdomar hos äldre.

  • 286.
    Bergström, Marie
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Gunnarsson, Sofia
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    "De osynliga": Närståendes upplevelser av att vårda en äldre person med psykisk sjukdom2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 287.
    Bergwall, Göthe
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Vilken kompetens bör sjuksköterskan besitta, för att god omvårdnad skall uppnås2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 288.
    Bering, Julia
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Giannini Nilsson, Petra
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Olika faktorers inverkan på fall hos äldre2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 289.
    Berner, Johannes
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Munnukka, Karolina
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Patienters upplevelser av psykiatrisk tvångsvård: En litteraturöversikt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Several thousands of people are treated each year in accordance to the Swedish law regarding compulsory psychiatric care, lag om psykiatrisktvångsvård (LPT). Compulsory psychiatric care can only be applied if thepatient is suffering from a severe psychiatric condition, is opposing careand has an unavoidable need of care that only can be given in a lockedpsychiatric ward. Patients’ suffering from severe psychotic conditions,depressions with suicidal thoughts or other severe psychiatric disabilitiesmay be in need of coercive care.

    Aim: To describe adult patients’ experiences of compulsory psychiatric care.

    Method: Literature review of 12 qualitative studies published between the years of2001–2015 and was gathered from databases CINAHL Complete, PubMed and psycINFO. The studies were analyzed in accordance with Friberg’s description of method (2012) to identify similarities anddifferences and the data was then categorized into five different themeswhich were; To be informed, To be participating, To be seen andrespected as a human being, To keep ones integrity and autonomy, Theown view on compulsory psychiatric care as treatment.

    Results: Patients experienced a lack of information and a lack of involvement intheir own care. Experiences of staff abusing their position of powertowards the patients, acting ignorant and showing a lack of competence.Patients were ambivalent towards the necessity of coercive care.

    Discussion: The strengths and weaknesses of the method is discussed and thediscussion is mainly centred around the sampling of articles and the thematization process. The patients' experiences of nursing activities andtreatment are discussed. Furthermore, what could have an impact ontheese variables and what impact theese variables might have on thepatients is discussed. This is discussed in relation to Eriksson’s (1994) theory on suffering from care.

  • 290.
    Berntzon, Lena
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Laumann, Anna
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    För stor för vården?: Upplevelser i mötet med vårdpersonal hos personer med övervikt2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Overweight and obesity is a health problem which is increasing globally, and that can lead to a series of complications, risks and additional problems for the affected person. The causes of obesity can vary and many obese people have multiple underlying problems. In Western society there is a negative attitude towards obese people and a stigma exists. In contact with health care, it is the health care professional’s responsibility that all people’s equal rights and worth are respected, and that the patient’s health is promoted.

    Aim: To illustrate the experiences of people with overweight in contact with health care professionals.

    Method: Literature review based on ten articles in nursing science, including six qualitative and four quantitative articles.

    Results: Many people with overweight feel that the social stereotypes, negative attitudes, preconceptions and prejudices about obesity in society are also experienced in encounters with health professionals. Feelings of shame are common in obese people. Despite this, many overweight report relatively good satisfaction in interaction with health care.

    Discussion: The results were discussed on the basis of Travelbee’s nursing theory and were compared with other relevant study outcomes. One difficulty that emerged is that the results of qualitative and quantitative studies differ. The authors’ interpretation is that obese do not have poor encounters with health professionals due to their weight. Despite this, most obese people report that they have had poor encounters once or a few times in their lives and those times clearly affected them with many lasting, negative effects.

  • 291.
    Berzelius, Erik
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Loheim Hammarberg, Jimmy
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors uppfattningar om tillämpning av omvårdnadsforskning i klinisk verksamhet: en litteraturöversikt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The nurses’ responsibility is to give good and safe health care based on nursing science and proved practice, and also keeping up to date with the latest nursing science. The most common use of research utilization is instrumental, which is nursing science directly applied when caring for patients. By acquiring and utilizing new nursing science, the nurse is able to develop safe care for patients. 

    Aim: The aim of this review was to describe nurses’ perceptions of implementing research science in clinical practice.

    Method: A literary review based on studies acquired from the database CINAHL Complete and Academic Search Complete 

    Result: The impact of nursing science describes that nurses believe nursing science as important for the evolvement and quality of the profession, but perceives it to be too complex to utilize. Nurses’ perceptions of barriers and facilitators towards research utilization in nursing science describe what organizational factors affect nurses´ perceptions of research utilization in nursing care. Nurses also describe that they want to utilize research, but they lack the skill to critically appraise scientific literature. Lack of time and low research availability are described as barriers towards research, and support and engagement from nursing administrators are considered a facilitator towards better research utilization.

    Discussion: Despite having a positive attitude towards nursing science, the result shows that the nurses today find it difficult to implement it in a clinical practice. The results indicate that there needs to be support from the management to facilitate research utilization in a clinical practice. 

  • 292.
    Beshir, Saed
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Saida, Saleh
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Trycksårsprevention för patienter inom äldreomsorg2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 293.
    Beyer, Ida
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    von Sydow, Emma
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Patienters hanterbarhet av diabetes typ 2: En beskrivande analys av hur kön, ålder och duration av typ 2-diabetes påverkar patienters hanterbarhet av sin sjukdom2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 294.
    Beyermann, Alexandra
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors stöd till närstående till personer med als inom den specialiserade palliativa hemsjukvården: Ramberättelse2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 295.
    Bicen, Yeliz
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Romanova, Irina
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    "Hunden är människans bästa vän": en litteraturstudie om hundars betydelse vid omvårdnaden av människor med demenshandikapp2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 296.
    Bidarbakht, Mahmud
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Relationship between professional caregivers and families of patients with long-term mental illness2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 297.
    Bielsten, Therése
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Hellström, Ingrid
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences. Linköpings universitet.
    Den bortglömda kroppen2016In: Att leva med demens / [ed] Ingrid Hellström & Lars-Christer Hydén, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2016, p. 97-103Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 298.
    Biguet, Gabriele
    et al.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska institutet.
    Nilsson Wikmar, Lena
    Department of Neurobiology, Caring Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karoliniska Institutet.
    Bullington, Jennifer
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Flink, Berit
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet.
    Löfgren, Monika
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet.
    Meanings of "acceptance" for patients with long-term pain when starting rehabilitation2016In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 38, no 13, p. 1257-1267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The study aimed to elucidate the meaning of acceptance in relation to the lived body and sense of self when entering a pain rehabilitation programme.

    METHODS: Six women and three men with long-term pain were interviewed. The interviews were analysed according to interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    RESULTS: The analysis revealed three different meaning structures, first: acceptance as a process of personal empowerment, "the only way forward". Here, the individuals expressed that the body felt integrated: a trusting cooperation between self and body gave rise to hope. Second: acceptance as an equivocal project, a possible but challenging way forward. The hopeful insight was there, acknowledging that acceptance was the way to move forward, but there was also uncertainty and doubt about one's ability with a body ambiguous and confusing, difficult but important to understand. Third, in acceptance as a threat and a personal failure, "no way forward" the integration of the aching body in sense of self was impossible and pain was incomprehensible, unacceptable and unfair. Pain was the cause of feeling stuck in the body, affecting the sense of self and the person's entire life.

    CONCLUSIONS: The meaning of acceptance was related to acceptance of the persistency of pain, to how the individual related to the lived body and the need for changes in core aspects of self, and to the issue of whether to include others in the struggle of learning to move on with a meaningful life. Implications for Rehabilitation Healthcare professionals should be aware that individuals with long-term pain conceptualize and hold different meanings of acceptance when starting rehabilitation; this should be considered and addressed in rehabilitation programmes. The meaning given to acceptance is related to the experience of the lived body and the sense of self, as well as to getting legitimization/acceptance by others; therefore these aspects need to be considered during rehabilitation. The process of achieving acceptance seems to embrace different processes which can be understood as, and facilitated by, an embodied learning process. The bodily existential challenges presented in the present study, for example to develop an integrated and cooperative relationship with the painful body, can inspire health professionals to develop interventions and communication strategies focusing on the lived body. A wide range of competencies in rehabilitation clinics seems to be needed.

  • 299.
    Billström, Cecilia
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Flodin, Annica
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors inställning till aktiv eutanasi: en litteraturstudie2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 300.
    Bini, Christina
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Nielsen, Claire
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Beröringens makt: En litteraturöversikt om hur vårdpersonal använder sig av beröring i omvårdnaden2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Human interaction by touch plays a central role for our health and well being throughout life. When people touch each other our bodies release a hormone called oxytocin into the bloodstream, this gives the body a soothing effect. Touching on the other hand can be perceived as unpleasant if it is not in accordance with the patient’s norm or wishes. From biblical times and through to today human touch plays a central part of nursing. The way we touch each other is not always something that comes naturally, habits of touching depends largely on one´s cultural background, upbringing and experiences.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe how health professional’s uses touch in daily care.

    Method: The authors have made a literature review. Ten research papers of both qualitative and quantitative design have been gathered via database searches.

    Results: The result showed that touching is an inevitable part of nursing. Health professionals use touch to build relationships and support verbal communication with the patient. The result also showed that touching made patients feel more secure and it also gave health professionals pride.

    Discussions: The results were discussed in relation to the life-world theory according to Dahlberg and Segesten. The main focus of discussion was: how the relationship between health professionals and the patient is affected by the way touch is used, touch is also used to create positive feelings and health professionals themselves feel strengthened by using touch.

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