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  • 1.
    Andersson Elmtoft, Natasja
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Att gå i psykoterapi efter pension: En kvalitativ studie av yngre äldre kvinnors behov avpsykoterapi2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Health psychology among elderly is a neglected topic and social authorities ask foralternative treatment methods to medication. Several studies conclude there is alack of research regarding psychotherapy with elderly. Due to this, the aim of thepresent study is to examine the specific issues and life-problems that concernpsychotherapy attending seniors today, and what they consider as helpful intherapy. A qualitative research design was used with interviews conducted withfive women, who had all chosen to attend psychotherapy after retirement. Thewomen were between 64 and 73 years old when the interviews took place. Theresults showed that four of the five women had gone through some kind ofpersonal crisis in connection with their retirement. The women had all soughtpsychotherapy during the life span, due to a variety of reasons and life-problems.The women in this study think that psychotherapy is helpful after retirement, butthat the psychotherapy should be adapted to the specific needs that elderly peopledo have., which is in line with earlier research.

  • 2.
    Branner, Aron
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Hur gör vi egentligen?: Vilka interventionstyperupplever psykoterapeuter att de använderför att skapa behandlingsallians medpatienter som har svårigheter med mentalisering? –En explorativ studie.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning: Att undersöka hur psykoterapeuterarbetar kliniskt med patienter som har svårigheter med mentalisering kan ge en tydligare uppfattning om vad som är hjälpsamt i skapandet av behandlingsallians. Psykoterapiforskning har visat att olika typer av interventioner kan vara verksamma i fråga om att skapa behandlingsallians. I denna studie undersöks vilka interventionstyperfem psykoterapeuter beskriver sig använda i försök att skapa behandlingsallians med patienter som har svårigheter med mentalisering.

    Frågeställningar: Vilka interventionstyperuppleverpsykodynamiskt orienterade psykoterapeuter är till hjälp för att skapa behandlingsallians med patienter som har svårt att mentalisera?

    Metod: I undersökningen tillämpades en kvalitativ, deskriptiv metod där data samlades in med hjälp av ljudinspelade, semistrukturerade intervjuer. Bearbetningsmetoden som används är tematisk analys.

    Resultat: Studien visar terapeuters olika syn på vad som är till hjälp när det handlar omatt skapa behandlingsallians hos personer som har svårt att mentalisera. Trots skillnader i teoretiska förhållningssätt trädde fyra gemensamma teman fram. De fyra centrala temanasom trädde fram i bearbetningen av intervjuerna var affekter, transparens, samarbete samt överföring.

    Diskussion: De beskrivna interventionstypernaochhur interventioner regleras efter reflektionsförmågadiskuteras. Vilka interventiontypersom upplevsverksamma jämförs med aktuell teoribildningi ämnet. Det framkommer olika teoretiska referensramar angående hur interventionstyperna skapas. Trotsolikateoretiska referensergår det att utkristalliseragemensamma interventionstyper.

  • 3.
    Carlgren, Gunilla
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Psykoanalytikers upplevelser av att patienten finns med i deras inre värld: utanför terapins tid och rum2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The relationship between analyst and patient in the therapeutic setting is of great importance in therapy, but what is the importance of this relationship outside the therapeutic setting?

    Question: The purpose of this study is to examine psychoanalysts’ experiences of the patient’s presence in their inner world, outside the therapeutic setting, how the analyst, the therapeutic collaboration and the therapeutic process are affected by this.

    Method: Five analysts were interviewed using semistructured qualitative interview. The interviews were analyzed using IPA.

    Results: The analysts described experiences of a calm, creative, fluid, dreamlike presence of the patient, of a burdening presence characterized by concern, of a presence characterized by feelings of both affection and concern, of a transference and counter transference characterized by aggression, where the analyst feels occupied by the patient, and of the patient’s presence linked to frame break.

    Discussion: All analysts stated that the patients had become internal objects, and a permanent part of their inner world. This could be experienced as both enriching, with feelings of joy, satisfaction and creativity, and demanding, with feelings of concern, frustration and anger. In both cases this presence was, however, experienced as an asset and a tool in the therapeutic process.

  • 4.
    Deines, Karin
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Klienters upplevelser av Bildterapi inom en Psykodynamisk terapi2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Art therapy/Art psychotherapy is a method in which image creation is used for therapeutic purposes. Art therapy as a method is found in different psychotherapeutic orientations, but the psychodynamic theory is most common. In recent years, several overview studies and RCT studies on Art Therapy as a treatment method have been published. Studies where clients have come to terms and shared their experience of the method are so far less widespread. This study aims to investigate clients' subjective experience of Art Therapy in psychodynamic therapy.

    Issues: How does the client experience Art Therapy in a psychodynamic therapy? How does the client experience the impact of Art Therapy on the relationship with the therapist? How does the client experience that Art Therapy affects the understanding of him or herself?

    Method: The study is based on interviews from five women between 36 and 63 years of age who participated in Art Therapy in psychodynamic therapy. Interview data were analyzed using Interpreting Phenomenological Analysis.

    Result: Therapeutic alliance proved to be of great importance and, according to the participants, was mainly due to the therapist's professionalism and ability to create security. Art Therapy was further perceived as a method that facilitated expressing, becoming aware and managing emotions and a method that helped the participant to let go of control and lessen the defence. The participants emphasized the fact that the image revealed both conscious and unconscious feelings and thoughts in a concrete way. Finally, the results showed that the participants’ expressed that they had gained self-understanding and changed their self-image. All the participants in the study emphasized the impossibility that in words to express everything that the images could reveal.

    Discussion: The outcome was discussed, inter alia, from other therapies where great emphasis is placed on consciousness, expressing and managing emotions. The therapeutic relationship was considered to be crucial but did not appear to be primarily a result of the Art Therapy method. The fact that the images were saved and were available for later consideration and discussion was, according to the participants, that their own change process became apparent in a visible way. Finally, the importance of giving space in research for clients’ subjective experience was discussed.  

  • 5.
    Elmér, Ingrid
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Från "förälder på heltid" till "förälder på deltid": En kvalitativ studie av fem personers upplevelser2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In Sweden, 35% of thechildren whose parents are separated have alternating residence i.e. they livehalf of the time with their mother and father respectively. Questions: Howhave separate parents experienced this process of adjustment from having been a"full-time parent"  in the nuclear family to becoming a"part-time parent" and see the child every fortnight and how do theyexperience that their relation to the children and those around has changedafter the adjustment? Method: A qualitative method has been chosen andfive separate parents living apart for at least 3 years have been interviewedin accordance with a semi-structured interview guide. Results: Theresult reveals that a separation is a process whose course of events startswith various strains within the nuclear family and leads to practical,emotional, social and relational changes that vary over time. Discussion:The result has been analysed focusing on the question to what extent it isbased on the three theories: the Transition theory, the Crisis theory and theEx-theory. The experiences of the informants correspond with all the threetheories in different parts. The separation process with alternating residenceinvolves a profound change going on parallelly; in the intrapsychic world (the Crisistheory), changes relating to identity and role and also witin the relationalworld towards the children as well as to other grown-ups (the Ex-theory). TheTransition theory makes a more differentiated description of the processpossible by means of its six factors. 

  • 6.
    Eriksson, Mats Einar
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    "Händer det något särskilt?": En intervjustudie om män i terapi hos manliga psykoterapeuter.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning: Färre män än kvinnor söker sig till psykodynamisk terapi, och den mesta kunskapen om män i terapi begränsar sig till subgrupper av män med missbruksproblematik eller kriminalitet. Det är därför väsentligt att öka kunskapen om män i mer generellt inriktad psykodynamisk terapi. Tidigare studier indikerar att när både terapeut och patient är män uppstår särskilda förutsättningar i terapin, som kan försvåra den samkönade terapin. Förståelse av vad som händer i manligt samkönade terapier kan underlätta för män som söker hjälp i psykodynamisk terapi.

    Frågeställning: Hur upplever yrkesverksamma manliga terapeuter terapimötet med manliga patienter?

    Metod: Fem manliga terapeuter intervjuades i semistrukturerade enskilda intervjuer. Materialet bearbetades med tematisk kvalitativ analys.

    Resultat: Resultatet visar att informanterna upplever särskilda förutsättningar i manligt samkönade terapier vad gäller relationen till terapeuten, skam, kontroll, terapimålet och själva terapisituationen. De beskriver att detta kan relateras till mäns tendens att leva upp till normativ maskulinitet även i terapirummet. Dock kan terapeuten fungera som rollmodell och visa på alternativ till normativ maskulinitet.

    Diskussion: Resultaten överensstämmer med tidigare forskning som påvisat mäns svårigheter att avvika från normativ maskulinitet i terapisituationen. Föreliggande studie uppmärksammar dessutom den manlige terapeutens funktion som rollmodell för alternativa maskuliniter, vilket kan sammankopplas med R. W. Connells teorier om maskuliniteter som ett differentierat begrepp. Ytterligare forskning om män i samkönade terapier är angelägen, i syfte att underlätta för hjälpbehövande män att söka terapi samt för att hjälpa terapeuter att möta män.

  • 7.
    Forell, Lisa
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Genusperspektiv i psykoterapi2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: There are few studies about the role of gender perspective and it’s use in psychotherapy. The purpose with this study is to describe how a group of legitimized psychotherapists use gender perspective in the therapeutic room and how they define the concept.

    Question formulations: How do psychodynamic orientated psychotherapists define gender perspective and its meaning for them? In what way do they use gender perspective in the therapeutic work?

    Method: A qualitative investigative method has been used where five legitimized psychotherapists, all women was interviewed in-depth. The result was analyzed and processed through thematic analysis method.

    Result: The participants share awareness of the different conditions between men and women in society. The study shows that the therapists have different approach to the practice with gender perspective. Some of the informants believe that openness and transparency with gender perspective towards the patient is required while others bring it as a silent knowledge into the therapy room.

    Discussion: The results are discussed from earlier research on feministic theory. The problem with connecting the own knowledge to the practice agree with earlier research and studies.

  • 8.
    Forss, Margaretha
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Anknytningsstil hos ledare och medarbetare och dess betydelse för upplevelser av arbete, arbetssituation och hälsa2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The attachment system has proven influence on both how we seek security and safety and on the HPA-axis, the stress regulation system. The study aims to investigate the influence of attachment style among leaders and employees and on their experiences of work and health.

    Research question: 1. Does insecure attachment (dismissive/preoccupied/fearful) have a negative influence on experiences of work and health? 2. Do employees of managers with secure attachment have more positive experiences of work and health?

    Method: 432 officials in Swedish companies answered a web form consisting of the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ), Salutogenic Health Indicator (SHIS), Work Experience Scale (WEMS).

    Results: Employees with preoccupied or fearful attachment had worse experiences of some aspects of work. Employees with secure attachment experienced work more positively. The managers´ attachment style did affect the subordinates´ perception of some aspects of work and health. 

    Discussion: Insecure attachment has a negative correlation with work experience which could indicate less effective stress regulation. Negative experiences among subordinates concerning physical health, self-determination and leadership are associated with insecure attached managers and could be a consequence of ineffective caring orientation of these managers. The importance of structure and security, which Swedish labor law provides, should be further discussed.

  • 9.
    Haglund Svensson, Jeanette
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Att ha deltagit i föräldragrupp för anhöriga till beroende: en studie av klienttillfredsställelse2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Being a relative of a person with an addiction disease involves a strong mental and physical stress. An important protection factor for the relatives is breaking the silence and shame and seek help. Ersta Vändpunkten is a clinic for these relatives and offers educational groups with a therapeutic objective. This study focuses on program for parents/relatives to children in the so-called little child group (4-6 years). Focus in the program is to support the parents in how they can help the child to understand what is happening in the family and how to take the child’s perspective. The aim of the study is to share the parent’s experiences of participating in this group. Questions: How has participation in the parenting program affected parenting ability? How has participation in the parent group affected the family? Methods: This is a web-based survey, the questionnaire has been analyzed with descriptive statistics. Results: 30 parents/relatives have been asked to participate of whom 17 responded (57%). The survey reveals that the parent/relative now has an improved relationship with the child and that communication in the family has changed for the better. Other relationships, to relatives, friends and to the addictive part have not changed noticeably. All respondents feel the child’s and their own self-esteem have become much better/better after participating. There is also a consensus among respondents that their ability to set boundaries towards the addicted part has become much better/better. Discussion: While the high non-response rate endangers firm conclusions, the findings are nevertheless promising.

  • 10.
    Hartman, Amanda
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Familjebehandling under tvång: Familjebehandlares upplevelser kring den terapeutiska alliansens betydlese inom kommunal familjebehandling2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The study investigates how family treatment done under coercion affects the ability of family therapists to create therapeutic alliance with families, and if this affects the therapist’s feelings of the possibility of creating changes. Questions: How family therapists are affected in their work to create a therapeutic alliance when the family is under / threatening care of young persons act (LVU)? Are there important relational elements in treatment that contribute to change when there is LVU or threat of LVU? Method: Qualitative interview investigation and thematic analysis. Results: The results of the study show that therapists feel it is of the utmost importance that they prove to be a "normal person", are given the opportunity to co-operate with the family and that they raise strengths rather than weaknesses, to reach an alliance. The result also shows that respondents experience it as aggravating when it comes to the creation of alliance, as collaboration with social services is sometimes complicated. They find it easier to create alliance when the family themselves ask for treatment. They believe that change is possible, albeit more difficult, when coercion exists. Discussion: The outcome of the study is discussed, partly from an intersubjective and systemic perspective.

  • 11.
    Hedström, Mikael
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Allians med ungdomar i familjeterapi2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses and examines how a number of family therapists look at the processes and factors related to how to build alliance with adolescents in family therapy. The current state of knowledge on this issue raises the important thing to get right alliance with adolescents in family therapy in terms of how successful and Goal Completions therapy becomes. The study shows that therapists have to consider that youth are in a development psychological position when they approach the young people with a generous dose of respect and sensitivity, as well as the growing awareness that young people are particularly sensitive and observant of how family therapists act in relation to them and their parents.

  • 12.
    Jakobsson, Jenny
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Ungdomars upplevelse av delaktighet i familjebehandling2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Children who participate in family therapy in social services in Sweden have the right to relevant information, the right to be heard and the right to have influence. These aspects of children's right is based on UN Convention but also from the Social Services Act and the BBIC.

    Research questions: What does adolescents who participated in family therapy think about their participation? What do they think is important to make adolescents participate in family therapy? Had it been possible to do something more or differently to increase their experience of influence?

    Method: Since the purpose was to investigate adolescents' subjective experience of participation the method of choice was a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews in which five young people who participated in family therapy was interviewed.

    Result: The results show that the respondents felt that they were involved in a high degree, and link this to a number of factors that they also believe is important for adolescents in general. What they raised as important was to get to choose to participate and what they took part in, to be heard individually in the early stages, to get active help to be heard in the joined family sessions with parents, to be involved and formulate goals, to be involved in decisions about the method and that the therapist to be "right person" for them.

    Discussion: A common theme in the interviewees' stories is how important it was to not only be invited to participate but also to be enlaced as equal partners of equal value and influence of parents but who sometimes need more help to be heard.

  • 13.
    Johansson, Lisa
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    "Så liten och skör": Syskon och föräldrars upplevelse av att få ett prematurt barn/syskon2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction A premature birth often provoke a crisis in the family, siblings are often not sufficiently taken in connection with a child is born very prematurely.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the siblings and parents 'experience with a particular focus on the siblings' experience of getting an extremely premature siblings, that is, Born rows 28 and earlier with a birth weight under one kilogram - v <28 <1000 g. The questions in the survey focused on expectations about getting a sibling, what marked time in the neonatal unit, and how the family can be affected by getting an extremely prematurely given birth.

    A qualitative method was chosen, the study is based on four semi-structured interviews with siblings between the ages of ten to fifteen years and five qualitative parental questionnaires. The results my study correspond well with earlier research findings.

    The neonatal period was characterized by many emotions from strong despair to joy and happiness. A time that was to include a lot of concern for both siblings and parents. Strong conflicting emotions aroused in the parents by not being good enough for both at home and siblings of the prematurely born child. Separation and a broken family experienced by all respondents. Siblings describe a strong absence out of her mother. Everyday life for the families became chaotic, stressful and chaotic with little time for recovery. Discussion several studies demonstrate the vulnerability of the siblings are not sufficiently addressed in the context of a premature birth. Further research in this area from a family perspective is needed. With regard to the family members of the need to manage and process, an often traumatic experience of getting a very premature baby.

  • 14.
    Johansson Sahlin, AnnMarie
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    När goda relationer uppstår: Familjehemsplacerade ungdomars upplevelser och erfarenheter av goda relationer med familjehemsföräldrar2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The study aims to understand and learn from the experiences of foster children with good relationships with foster parents. Many children and youth are placed in foster homes every year, and disruptions and unplanned terminations of care are common. At the same time, many youth give evidence that the time in the foster home has been crucial for their possibilities to master difficult family relationships and reach a functional life.

    Research questions: What experiences do foster children pay attention to when telling about their good relationship with foster parents? How can their experiences be explained and understood?

    Research method: Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with five teenagers in foster care.

    Results: The study shows the significance of safety and belonging for the youth, and that the experiences are created from, among other, absence of conflicts and scolding, and from the conversational practices established in the foster home.

    Discussion: The results are discussed in the light of attachment theory and a systemic perspective. 

  • 15.
    Jonsson, Karin
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Den analytiska förmågan - en gåva och en förbannelse2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning: Psykoterapeuter har genom lång utbildning och kliniskt arbete övat upp en analytisk förmåga. Den förmågan består av dels förmågan till uppmärksamhet och iakttagelse, dels förmågan av analys av det som uppmärksammats. Detta är själva navet i det kliniska arbetet att kunna fånga upp både medvetna och omedvetna processer hos patienten för att terapi ska kunna bedrivas. Förmågan till iakttagelse och analys innefattar även den egna personen. Det innebär att terapeuten i arbetet inte bara är medveten om den andres inre processer utan även de egna inre procceserna.

    Frågeställningar: Denna studie syftar till att uppmärksamma hur terapeuten upplever den analytiska förmågan i sitt personliga liv för att undersöka om utbildning och arbete faktiskt har en djupare inverkan på privatlivet. Hur upplever terapeuterna att det är att leva med den kunskap och den medvetenhet som den psykoterapeutiska utbildningen och det fortsatt kliniska arbetet bidragit till? Vilka möjligheter och svårigheter bidrar det till? Kommer den analytiska förmågan att få konsekvenser även i terapeutens personliga liv och relationer? Hur hanteras dessa konsekvenser?

    Metod: Studien bygger på en kvalitativ metod med fenomenologisk och deskriptiv ansats. Fem legitimerade psykoterapeuter har intervjuats med kvalitativa intervjuer om de upplever att deras analytiska förmåga påverkar deras personliga liv. Intervjuerna transkriberades och analyserades med den kvalitativ metoden innehållsanalys.

    Resultat: Resultatet visar att den analytiska förmågan upplevdes i hög grad påverka terapeutens personliga liv. Detta resultat presenteras i form av fem kategorier och 14 underkategorier. De fyra kategorierna omfattar 1. hur fungerar den analytiska förmågan, 2. hur upplevs den, 3. hur används den, 4. hur kopplar psykoterapeuterna av från den och 5. hur påverkas identiteten. Ett övergripande tema som framträddeoch som fanns som en röd tråd genom alla intervjuer var att den analytiska förmågan upplevdes både som en gåva och en förbannelse.

    Diskussion: Det som framkommer i denna studie av hur psykoterapeuter upplever den analytiska förmågan i sina personliga liv överensstämmer med den tidigare forskning som gått att få fram. Terapeuterna upplever att deras yrkesfärdighet i allra högsta grad påverkar deras personliga liv, men upplever det framför allt som något positivt. Nackdelar framgår men fördelarna överväger.  

  • 16.
    Junger, Anette
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Barns upplevelse av intensiv familjeterapi (IFT)2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 17.
    Juteräng, Staffan
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Legitimerade psykoterapeuters upplevelser och hantering av behandlingen av krigs- och tortyrskadade flyktingar2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The need for trauma treatment for refugees has increased. The psychotherapist testifies to stories that concern suffering, fear and pain. The purpose of this study is to investigate how psychotherapists experience their work in dealing with war and torture injured refugees.

    Research questions: How do psychotherapists experience the work of war and torture injured refugees? Are psychotherapists using coping strategies to handle their experiences in the work of war and torture-injured refugees? If so, which?

    Method: Qualitative method with phenomenological, descriptive approach was chosen. Five psychotherapists working with war and torture injured refugees were interviewed.

    Results: ”Oscillating between powerlessness and creative change" is a theme that represents the underlying latent message, what is said "between the lines" and represents the red thread found in all the interviews. The manifest results show that the therapists experience their work as a privilege and as burdensome. The therapists use conscious coping strategies to deal with emotional stress.

    Discussion: The therapists' description of their work on war and torture injured is in line with previous research. Therapists' experience of their work can be understood by the concepts of transference, projective identification, vicarious traumatization, secondary traumatic stress and posttraumatic growth.

  • 18.
    Karpefors, Ulrika
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Det förändrande moderskapet: fem ensamstående småbarnsmammors upplevelse av förändring efter att de fött barn2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In this study, which is based on the interviews concerning the experiences of five single mothers, the transition to motherhood is highlighted.

    Objectives: How does the single mother experience motherhood? What is the impact of motherhood on her self-perception? In the transition to becoming a mother, what is considered helpful and what is considered limiting?

    Method: Based on five narrative interviews, with single mothers having children aged in the range 9 to 15 months, a qualitative interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) approach has been used.

    Results: In the analysis, three themes emerged. In the first theme, the child was seen as a breakpoint in the woman’s life. In the second theme it is acknowledged that, out of the mother-child relationship, like an I and a You relationship, a sense of a We emerged in the relation, which challenges as well as strengthens the mothers’ sense of self. The third theme acknowledges that, the single mother struggles with a feeling of insufficiency as a parent, which is seen as both a result of the sole responsibility and that the single mother seems to challenge both a two-parent norm within the parenthood and an internalized ideal of nuclear family. 

    Discussion: Starting from relational psychoanalytical theory, the results were analyzed. In the study, the transition to motherhood follows a three-step process of self-changes that initially dissolves the self, then challenges the self and finally strengthens the self. The process is developed from an actual and ethical responsibility of the mother for the child, which in turn also generates a responsibility for herself. Intersubjectivity was seen as a driving force in the process. The single mother seems particularly vulnerable during this process when the need for closeness, support and recognition is accentuated. The single mother seems also at risk of experiencing herself standing alone when she finds that her parenthood might challenge certain norms and the immediate and indirect message of the environment might be divorced. Then there is a risk that she experiences herself questioned, exposed and lonesome. Providing women with therapy support during pregnancy and emerging maternity is a clinical implication suggested in the study.

  • 19.
    Ketterer, Silvia
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Likt men olikt: alliansen i ISTDP och Klassisk Psykodynamisk Terapi2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Different therapy methods provide different help. ISTDP is distinguished by being more intensive and, as in all methods, also here alliance is important. Therapists are the one who are working with the alliance but how they experienced it, what similarities and differences there are in the different methods they work with, has rarely been investigated. The goal with the study is to illustrate psychodynamic psychotherapists view on alliance in both ISTDP and classic psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    Questions: How do clinically effective psychodynamic psychotherapists see the therapeutic alliance in both classic psychotherapy and ISTDP? What are the differences and similarities in how they create and maintain it?

    Method: Six licensed psychodynamic psychotherapists who also are educated in ISTDP have been interviewed. The research is based on grounded theory.

    Result: Differences that are found are the need for contract and frame and how the method is applied. A gender difference is in the therapist's view of the possibility of engagement, in ascribing signification to the interventions that bring about alliance and in the way alliance, attachment and emotional contact has been used. Similarities are regarding the importance of therapist's engagement, competence and patient's problems.

    Discussion: The result was discussed on base of the therapist's view upon alliance. Therapist's engagement and patient's problems as well as how the method has an impact on creating the alliance has been discussed. Therapist's experience of being able to create and maintain the alliance has been discussed from a gender perspective and legibility.

  • 20.
    Lagerling, Louise
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Det psykoterapeutiska kontraktet ur ett psykodynamiskt perspektiv2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The purpose of this paper to examine how five psychodynamic oriented private practice psychotherapists define the concept of the psychotherapeutic contract, how they work with the psychotherapeutic contract and what effects they think this work provides.

    Issues: How do you define the concept of psychotherapeutic contract? How do you work practically with the psychotherapeutic contract? What impact do you see your work with the psychotherapeutic contract?

    Method: A qualitative inductive analysis has been used. Five psychodynamic oriented psychotherapists were interviewed with semi-structured questions. The material has thereafter been encoded, thematized, analyzed and compiled.

    Results: The psychotherapeutic contract terms have not been perceived as acknowledged by those interviewed. All uses, however, a psychotherapeutic contract in different ways. All interviewees are experiencing the benefits of working with the psychotherapeutic contract provided it is used correctly.

    Discussion: The psychotherapeutic contract is interpreted and applied in various ways depending on the theoretical orientation. Based on the frames of the essay it can be concluded that psychodynamic psychotherapy is interpreted and practiced in different ways depending on how the psychotherapist relate to the psychotherapeutic contract.

  • 21.
    Leichsenring, Falk
    et al.
    Tyskland.
    Liliengren, Peter
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Lindqvist, Karin
    Stockholms universitet.
    Mechler, Jakob
    Stockholms universitet.
    Falkenstöm, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet.
    Philips, Björn
    Stockholms universitet.
    Steinert, Christiane
    Tyskland.
    Abbass, Allan
    Kanada.
    Inadequate Reporting of a Randomized Trial Comparing Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Psychodynamic Therapy for Depression.2019In: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, ISSN 0022-3018, E-ISSN 1539-736X, Vol. 207, no 6, p. 421-422Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Lidén, Jessica
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Kliniska bedömningar av förändring i terapi2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It has been found that a large proportion of patients do not experience any positive change from psychotherapy and that about 5-10% deteriorates during treatment. There is no consensus in the field regarding what change is and what constitutes signs of positive and negative changes, nor how the therapists should relate to such signs.

  • 23.
    Lilliengren, Peter
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Philips, Björn
    Stockholms universitet.
    Falkenström, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet.
    Bergquist, Mia
    Region Västra Götaland.
    Ulvenes, Pål
    Research Institute, Modum Bad Psychiatric Center.
    Wampold, Bruce
    Research Institute, Modum Bad Psychiatric Center.
    Comparing the treatment process in successful and unsuccessful cases in two forms of psychotherapy for cluster C personality disorders.2019In: Psychotherapy, ISSN 0033-3204, E-ISSN 1939-1536, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 285-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different forms of psychotherapy are effective for cluster C personality disorders, but we know less about what in-session processes promote change. Contrasting successful and unsuccessful cases may elucidate processes that facilitate or impede outcome and offer suggestions for clinical practice and future research. In this exploratory outcome-process study, 10 successful and 10 unsuccessful cases were selected from a randomized trial comparing cognitive therapy and short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy for cluster C personality disorders. Videotaped sessions were rated with the Psychotherapy Process Q-Set (PQS). The treatments were compared in terms of which PQS items differentiated successful and unsuccessful cases, as well as their resemblance with PQS prototypes of "ideal treatments." Therapists' behavior in early sessions was also explored. Results indicate that successful cases in our sample were characterized by a more active and engaged patient. In contrast, unsuccessful cases were characterized by a more directive or "controlling" therapist stance. Correlations with PQS prototypes were moderate to strong in both successful and unsuccessful cases, suggesting that optimal and suboptimal interpersonal processes may be independent of adherence to particular treatments. Exploration of therapist behaviors in early sessions indicated that therapists were more likely to adjust their way of working in the successful cases. Our result suggests that patient engagement and therapists' early efforts to improve the therapy relationship may be pivotal for successful outcome, whereas therapist controlling behavior may obstruct the treatment process, regardless of therapy model used. The impact of these in-session processes should be examined more closely in larger samples in future studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

  • 24.
    Lindblad, Kristina
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Psykodynamisk psykoterapi med personer med intellektuell funktionsnedsättning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: People with intellectual disabilities are affected more than others by mental illness and can easily fall into destructive patterns of life. They often feel that they have difficulty getting adequate and appropriate treatment.

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate psychotherapists experience of psychodynamic psychotherapy with individuals with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities who suffer from mental illness.

    Issues:How do psychodynamic oriented psychotherapists describe the psychotherapeutic process in working with people with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities? What do the therapists describe as active and helpful and how do they look at the results of treatment?

    Method: Six psychotherapists were interviewed based on a qualitative, descriptive approach.

    Results: When analyzing the material a number of themes appeared: 1. The therapist description of the phases of the therapeutic process. 2. External factors that can influence therapies with the target group. 3. The intellectual disabilities significance. 4. Therapeutic challenges in the work with the target group. 5. The active and helpful. 6. The conditions around the therapist.

    Discussion: The result shows that the interviewed therapists feel that psychodynamic psychotherapy with mild-moderate intellectual disabilities can be meaningful and effective. Some specific aspects and the need to adapt the therapeutic work is described as central in the work with the target group.

  • 25.
    Lindblom, Sophia
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Objektrelationer hos livsstilskriminella män: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In this literature study, the relationships between objectrelationships and antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy among criminalswas analysed. The aim is to increase the understanding of the unconsciousemotional processes of people with a criminal lifestyle. An increasedunderstanding is believed to contribute to better tailored interventions for thetarget group.

    Issues: What object relations are found in men with a criminal lifestyle? How cana greater understanding in the area contribute to better tailored interventions forthe target group?

    Methods: The studies have been included through database search and examinedthrough thematization. General and specific aspects of object relations wereidentified.

    Results: The result shows that the target group generally has a personalityorganization at borderline level. Specifically, egocentrism is the characteristicaspect. Interventions that have proved to be successful with other personalitydisorders within cluster B are believed to be useful to the target group.

    Discussion: Further research is needed to examine how egocentrism should behandled in the therapeutic situation. Psycho-educative elements aboutegocentrism are believed to help the client idealize this knowledge and turn it intoan interest in his own mental states.

  • 26.
    Linde, Camilla
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    "Vart ska vi ta vägen": Ungas bloggande om psykisk ohälsa2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction:  The aim of the present study was to investigate how young adults themselves describe mental ill-health and how their description says something about how it affects the view of themselves, how they struggle with it and their description of healthcare and therapeutic treatment. By studying blogs, the image of mental ill-health from the young adult's own perspective as they themselves describe it can widen.

    Issues:The issues that have been investigated have been how the young person describes mental illness and how the description of themselves is linked to the view of themselves, their struggle with mental illness and their description of healthcare and therapeutic treatment.

    Method: In this study, 4 blogs on the topic of mental illness have been used as empirical material and an analytical method based on the discourse psychological approach based on Wetherell & Potters interpretation repertoires. The four interpretative repertoires were defined after categorizing the material in different themes that finally was gathered in four interpretive repertoires: 1) perceived mental ill-health - anxiety discourse, 2) treatment of care interventions - treatment discourse 3) intervention with focus on treatment of treatment - confidence discourse 4) and identification with mental illness - identification discourse.

    Results: The material in the study has been reported on the basis of the four interpretative repertoires that were defined and show that women describe mental ill-health mainly in terms of anxiety and then in somatic form something that they describe affects them both in their view of themselves and their view of the environment, especially in relation to themselves for healthcare and therapeutic treatment.

    Discussion: The women in this study describe a difference between their perception of mental ill-health, mainly referred to in terms of anxiety and how anxiety works. This also appears in their description of mental illness and how it affects the view of themselves and their surroundings in this study, especially in relation to health and care. In the description of meetings with healthcare and treatment, similar problems arise even after they describe long-term contact with healthcare and treatment. Further research could, for example through interviews with blog writers, be able to investigate what the blog symbolizes for the blog writer and what the women think they want to convey through the blog. What is it that they think the blog replaces as they cannot get in their surroundings or from the adults?

  • 27.
    Lublin, Ann-Kristin
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Terapeuters upplevelser av ett mellanmänskligt möte i terapier med kvinnor som upplevt våld i nära relation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Listening to a woman who has been exposed to intimate partner violence (IVP) may be a challenge for the therapist, as it involves listening to how the woman has been exposed to violence from someone who is close to her. It can be painful remainder of the darker sides of human existence and can evoke strong feelings within the therapist who is listening.

    Aim: The aim of this paper is to explore what practices that psychotherapists consider helpful in establishing a therapeutic alliance with a woman who has been exposed to IVP? What kind of transference and countertransference reactions does the therapist typically experience? How do these reaction affect the therapist, and how can they be used in therapy?

    Method: Therapists who conducted therapies with women who had been exposed to IVP were interviewed about their experiences. The material was analysed using inductive thematic analysis, which can be described as data-driven analysis or “bottom-up”.

    Conclusion: The results show that the establishment of a therapeutic alliance with a woman who has experienced IVP can take a long time, sometimes several months or years. The participants described the importance of an interpersonal meeting and of being genuinely interested to the accounts of the victimized woman. A therapeutic alliance was described as beginning when the woman felt to be understood by her therapist. The therapists also describe that they needed to be more active in therapies with woman who had been exposed to IVP than in other therapies, and that they used psycho-educative methods in these therapies. Many countertransference reactions were described, which could be physical, cognitive and emotional.

    Discussion: The therapists described the challenge of listening to and identifying with the women’s experiences of both threats and violence from a close partner. For the therapist, it is important to be aware of, and not to act out on their countertransference reactions to be able to create and maintain a therapeutic alliance with the victimized woman.

  • 28.
    Lundberg, Andreas
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Avslutet av terapitimmen: Hur psykodynamiska psykoterapeuter förhåller sig till den psykoterapeutiska ramens tidsdimension2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The psychotherapeutic framework is a central idea in psychodynamic theory. The purpose of the study is to examine how psychodynamically oriented psychotherapist relate to the psychotherapeutic framework with focus on the time dimension at the end of the therapy session.

    Questions: How does the therapist act to end a therapy session? How does the therapist regard the end of the therapy session? What feelings and reactions does the termination evoke in the therapist? Is the termination of the therapy session a subject you can talk to other therapists about? 

    Method: The data collection was conducted through structured interviews with a qualitative research method. The study has a hermeneutic approach and the result has been analysed thematically.

    Result: The study shows that four out of five interviewed psychotherapists prepare the patient for the end of the psychotherapy session. This practice lacks support in the psychodynamic psychotherapist education at St Lukas educational institution. The importance of holding the time frame, in the sense of working psychotherapeutically until the agreed time is over, is emphasized during the training.

    Discussion: The interviewed psychotherapists share the view that the psychotherapeutic timeframes are generally not applied as strictly today as before. Four out of five therapists have experience of working with other methods of therapy than the psychodynamic, which may affect their approach to the end of the therapy session.

  • 29.
    Maroti, Daniel
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet; Danderyds sjukhus.
    Lilliengren, Peter
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Bileviciute-Ljungar, Indre
    Karolinska institutet; Danderyds sjukhus.
    The Relationship Between Alexithymia and Emotional Awareness: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Correlation Between TAS-20 and LEAS2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, p. 1-10-, article id 453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Alexithymia and emotional awareness may be considered overlapping constructs and both have been shown to be related to psychological and emotional well-being. However, it is not clear how the constructs relate to each other empirically or if they may overlap more or less in different populations. The aim of this review was therefore to conduct a meta-analysis of correlations between the most commonly used measures of alexithymia (i.e., the self-report instrument Toronto Alexithymia Scale; TAS-20) and emotional awareness (i.e., the observer-rated instrument Level of Emotional Awareness Scale; LEAS) and to explore potential moderators of their relationship. 

    Methods: Electronic databases were searched for studies published until the end of February 2018. Study samples were coded as medical conditions, psychiatric disorders and/or healthy controls and sample mean age and gender distribution were extracted. Correlations between the TAS-20 and the LEAS were subjected to a random effect of meta-analysis and moderators were explored in subgroup analyses and meta-regressions. Publication bias was considered. 

    Results: 21 studies reporting on 28 independent samples on correlation analysis were included, encompassing a total of 2857 subjects (57% women). The aggregated correlation between TAS-20 and LEAS was r = −0.122 (95% CI [−0.180, −0.064]; Z = −4.092; p < 0.001), indicating a significant, but weak, negative relationship between the measures. Heterogeneity was moderate, but we found no indication of significant differences between patients with medical conditions, psychiatric disorders or healthy controls, nor that mean age or percentage of female subjects moderated the relationship. The overall estimate became somewhat weaker after adjusting for possible publication bias. 

    Conclusions: Our results indicate that TAS-20 and LEAS measure different aspects of emotional functioning. The small overlap suggests that alexithymia and emotional awareness are distinct constructs of emotional well-being. Clinicians need to assess both aspects when considering treatment options for individual patients. Moreover, from the clinical standpoint, an easy reliable and valid way of measuring emotional awareness is still needed. More research should be focus on the differences between alexithymia and emotional awareness in specific conditions, but also how to integrate self-report instrument and observed based measures in a clinical situation.

  • 30.
    Negri, Luce
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Mindfulnessbaserad psykodynamisk psykoterapi: terapeuters uppfattning av hur mindfulnessmeditation påverkar psykodynamisk psykoterapi2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 31.
    Ness, Stuart
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Innanför och utanför: Familjehems upplevelser av barnterapi2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: There currently exists a dearth of research studying how psychosocialtreatment methods affect relationships outside of the treatment. Still less insightexists into how foster families experience the psychodynamic treatment of childrenin their care. This study attempts to examine and describe foster families experienceof psychodynamic child therapy and what they themselves have understood to be thetreatments purpose and goal.

    Question:How have the interview subjects experienced having responsibility for a child intherapy and what have they understood to be the treatments purpose and goals?What effect has the therapy had on the child itself and how has the therapy affectedtheir own relationship to the child?Method: The author has attempted to gain an understanding of the interviewsubject’s subjective experience of having responsibility for a foster child inpsychotherapy. The method chosen has been five semi-structured interviews thathave then been analyzed to uncover the underlying latent themes in the originalmaterial.

    Result: The material has been categorized into one main theme and threesub-themes. The main theme that the material shows is an ambivalent to thepsychotherapeutic treatment. The main theme has then been broken down in thethree subsets based upon how the interview subjects ambivalence appears in relationto their experience of participation , alliance , and change.

    Discussion: Results of the study show that the ambivalence that i felt towards thepsychodynamic treatment is an expected result of the treatment influence on thefamily system. The study confirm earlier research that places importance on a strongalliance between the therapist and the parents in the facilitation of a successfultherapeutic treatment.

  • 32.
    Nygren, Leena
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Anknytningsmönster hos föräldrar vars barn fått diagnosen AD/HD2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 60 credits / 90 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Diagnosis and treatment of AD/HD is primarily done in accordance with research describing the state as a neurodevelopmental disorder, which implies biological causes. Still less common within research is the relation between AD/HD and attachment and childhood conditions. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the distribution of attachment patterns among parents in families where children has been diagnosed with AD/HD

    Question formulation: What does the distribution of attachment patterns look like amongst parents whose children have been diagnosed with AD/HD? What are the combinations of attachment patterns amongst the couples?

    Method: A quantitative method with an explorative approach has been used for this study. The ASQ self-evaluation questionnaire has been used to generate the attachment profiles from the given analysis model. Information has been processed and analyzed on three levels to find patterns within the attachment patterns of the individuals and the group. The result is presented as descriptive statistics.

    Result: 97 % of the participating parents displayed unsecure attachment profiles. The distribution between secure and insecure attachments was equal between sexes, age groups and education levels. Amongst attachment profiles there was an overweight towards Avoidance (47 %) and Ambivalence (40 %) in comparison to profiles Anxiety (10 %) and Security (3 %).

    Discussion: This study, together with other studies, has shown a high degree of insecure attachment patterns in families with AD/HD diagnosis. And although the study result can’t say anything about insecure attachments causing AD/HD symptoms, or AD/HD causing insecure attachment patterns, the study is in line with the fact that family-therapeutic interventions can be wise to use. In a family-therapeutic situation real change work can be done in the family system, regardless if the causes are biologically or relationally induced.

  • 33.
    Rosdahl Ljung, Ulrika
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Bildterapi för patienter vid psykotiska tillstånd2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introductions: The aim of the study is to investigate art therapists’ experiences of what is working in the treatment of patients with psychotic disorders. 

    Issues: What interventions art therapists use in clinical work with patients with psychotic disorders? How is the art therapeutic method significance for the psychotherapeutic treatment? 

    Method: The study is based on semistructured interviews with five art therapists with experience of treatment with patients in psychotic disorders. The interviews were recorded and then processed using thematic analysis.

    Result: The result describes five art therapists' experiences of what characterizes the treatment with patients in psychotic disorders. Two main themes emerged in the study with three respectively four subtopic. The interventions applied by the art therapist´s own involvement in the artcreations, it´s supportive interventions ant it´s proposed themes. The other theme is important factors in the treatment; such as visualizing and processing the patients inner experiences, it´s path to verbalization, it´s aid in reality orientation and reliefing effect from psychotic suffering.

    Discussion: The result is discussed based on the art therapists’ experiences of what is active in the work with patients in psychotic disorders. Interventions and important factors are discussed in relation to different theoretical frameworks of reference. Thoughts on the method are addressed, and that more research is required in the art therapeutic field to consolidate the importance of the method in treatment of patients in psychotic disorders, not least based on requirements for evidence.

  • 34.
    Sahlin, Tobias
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Föräldrars upplevelse av terapeutisk allians till en terapeut i Anknytningsbaserad familjeterapi - ABFT2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning:Psykisk ohälsa bland unga blir allt vanligare. I familjebehandling riktad mot unga är det viktigt att även föräldrar etablerar en allians till den behandlande terapeuten för att det ska vara verkningsfullt. Anknytningsbaserad familjeterapi (ABFT) är en behandlingsform som involverar den unge samt minst en förälder och där det är förväntas att den deltagande föräldern ska vara personligt engagerad. För detta krävs en terapeutisk allians mellan förälder och terapeut. 

    Frågeställning: Hur har Bordins tre aspekter av terapeutisk allians -  relation, arbetssätt och mål - upplevts av föräldrar som deltagit i ABFT.

    Metod:Fem föräldrar som deltagit i ABFT med sina barn har var och en för sig deltagit i en semistrukturerad intervju vars huvudteman har varit Bordins tre centrala aspekter av terapeutisk allians, relation, arbetssätt och mål. Informationen har sedan analyserats och underteman har skapats utifrån materialet.

    Resultat:Föräldrarna uttrycker på olika sätt att de upplevt en terapeutisk allians med den behandlande terapeuten. De aspekter av en terapeutisk allians som handlar om relationen samt arbetssättet blev tydligast uttryckta som alliansfaktorer av deltagarna. Aspekten som handlar om målsättning med terapin verkar vara en mer implicit aspekt av den terapeutiska alliansen.

    Diskussion:Något som beskrevs som viktigt av deltagarna var den ”icke-terapeutiska” hållningen hos terapeuten. Något som upplevdes hämma relationen var att sessionerna filmades. Deltagarna upplevde sättet som metoden utfördes på som professionell och tydlig. Inget i terapeutens sätt att jobba har upplevts som obehagligt eller kränkande. Deltagarna hade svårigheter att uppfatta terapeutens målsättning utan svarade mest utifrån sitt eller sina barns målsättning på behandlingen.

  • 35.
    Siegerstam, Ann-Britt
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Psykoterapeuters erfarenheter och upplevelser av förändring i parterapi2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Psychodynamic couple therapy is about the interaction in between three people. Meetings which aim to change the interaction and find new understanding of each other’s life experiences. The purpose of this study was to analyse psychotherapists’ understanding and experience of changes in couple therapy.

    Topics of discussion: Which therapeutic factors are relevant for couple therapy? Which therapeutic factors affect the interaction of the couple? What benefits or difficulties is a therapist posed to?

    Method: Five therapists were interviewed with respect to both qualitative and thematic methods.

    Conclusion: The intersubjective interaction between therapist and couples has relevance for implementing changes in psychodynamic couple therapy. Personal attitude and receptive ability to perceive communicative alliance created through a therapeutic environment in which acceptance of inequalities and difference of opinions was developed.

    Discussion: The therapeutic framework, and the informants’ simultaneous ability to establish and monitor the alliance, were factors of particular significance for the three parallel ongoing relationships of the couple therapy. The informants’ simultaneous ability to perceive and investigate communicative alliance was a factor that positively affected the therapeutic relationship. The therapists’ application of such interactions increased the couple's engagement in the therapy. By being personal and making use of primarily soft emotions, the couple became more open and were able to reach deeper emotional experiences. These intersubjective meetings led to a changed relationship with more secure emotional ties and an increased psychological presence.

  • 36.
    Sjöstedt, Hanna
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Balansakten i det psykoterapeutiska arbetet med män som köper sexuella tjänster2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 60 credits / 90 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Sweden has since 1999 a prostitution legislation that prohibits sex purchase. Focus has shifted towards the buyer in prostitution. Apart from the criminalization of sexual purchase actions to reduce prostitution pointed at the buying part is highlighted. One of the available actions is psychotherapy. The objective of the study is to increase the knowledge about psychotherapy focused on males that purchase sexual services from the experience of psychotherapists treating them.

    Question: How do psychotherapists experience psychodynamic psychotherapy with men who buy sexual services?

    Method: A qualitative method with a descriptive and explorative onset has been used. Seven psychotherapists that work with or have worked with men that purchase sexual services have been interviewed. The transcribed material has been analyzed using thematic analysis.

    Result: The result of the study is presented with four themes with the balancing act as an overall theme; Understanding with sub-themes explanation models and approaches; Contempt with sub-theme disgust; Seduction and The crime.

    Discussion: The results are discussed from the perversion concept. Countertransference emotions of contempt and disgust agree with earlier studies and theories. The theme of seduction is discussed from the perspective that it is shameful for a psychotherapist to feel seduced or attracted and beguiled in relation to the patients. The line between accepting and pathologizing the illegality and the abnormal behavior is discussed.

  • 37.
    Stetsko, Maria
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Att vara gruppledare för sorgegrupper med barn och unga2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 38.
    Sundvall, Nina
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Psykoterapeuters upplevelse av ansvar2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine the psychotherapist's experience of responsibility towards their patients and how this affects her in her professional work and private life. The study seeks to answer the following questions: 1.) How do psychotherapists describe the experience of existential responsibility? 2.) How do psychotherapists describe different factors that affect the responsibility experience? 3.) How do psychotherapists describe the impact of responsibility experience on an existential level? 4.) What do psychotherapists describe as helpful in managing the responsibility experience? The author has chosen a qualitative method where semi-structured interviews were conducted with six licensed psychotherapists. These were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. The result shows that the existential responsibility towards the patient is perceived as profound, and that the power of responsibility is influenced by both structural, patient-dependent and personal factors. Responsibility seems to be linked to human existence rather than to formal rules and guidelines. The psychotherapist is influenced by her work both in the private and professional life. This is perceived as relatively unproblematic of psychotherapist if/when she has found a way to relate to it. Several factors are helpful to manage the experience of responsibility has emerged, several of which is about self-care.

  • 39.
    Talia, Alessandro
    et al.
    Tyskland.
    Miller-Bottome, Madeleine
    USA.
    Wyner, Rachel
    USA.
    Lilliengren, Peter
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Bate, Jordan
    USA.
    Patients’ Adult Attachment Interview classification and their experience of the therapeutic relationship: are they associated?2019In: Research in Psychotherapy, ISSN 2499-7552, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 175-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decade of his career, Jeremy Safran became increasingly interested in investigating the ways in which attachment representations influence the therapeutic relationship. In this paper, we test such influence in a sample of thirty outpatients who received Brief Relational Therapy by comparing their independently coded pre-treatment Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) with their narratives in a post-treatment interview about the relationship with the therapist (the Patient Relationship Interview at Termination, PRI-T). The PRI-T was coded with the following three measures: i) The Patient Attachment to Therapist Rating Scale (PAT-RS), which assesses the quality of the patient’s attachment relationship to the therapist; ii) the Coherence scale from the AAI, adapted for use on the PRI-T; and iii) the Patient Attachment Classification System (PACS), which measures generalized differences in how individuals convey their experiences and feelings. Results suggest that patients’ AAI predicts how they experience, represent, and communicate about the therapeutic relationship at the end of treatment, as shown by the PAT-RS, the Coherence scale adapted for use on the PRI-T, and the PACS applied to the PRI-T. These findings lend support to Safran and others’ hypothesis that patients’ AAI-status plays a role in patients’ representations of the relationship with the therapist.

  • 40.
    Tingström, Katarina
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Drömmars plats i sorgeterapi: En kvalitativ studie om drömmars funktion i sorgeterapi2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Summary: Contemporary research about grief focuses on achieving a different relationship to the deceased and managing the separation. The purposes of dreams are to reduce stress, solve conflicts, and consolidate memories. But it’s also a window into representative processes and inner models of relationships, to create a context. Can psychotherapists enhance their understanding of the clients mourning, by using dreams in grief therapy?

    Questions: How do psychotherapists use dreams in their understanding of the clients mourning? What do the psychotherapist feel is working when using the clients dreams in therapy?

    Method: A qualitative studie by interviewing four licensed psychodynamic psychotherapists and one licensed nurse.

    Result: When psychotherapists identify different themes in the dreams, they capture how the dreams frame the clients mourning. What works well when using the dreams in the therapy, is when is it aiding the client in putting words to their grief, getting access to subconscious material and identifying internal conflict. It also helps the client to integrate and normalise the grief, and feeling the comfort of progress, because the dreams confirm it.

    Discussion: The study shows that existing research about grief and dreams is confirmed by the clinical experiences of the interviewees.

  • 41.
    Viitanen Berglund, Anne
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Barns upplevelse av att ha ett syskon med psykisk ohälsa2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Mental health issues in children seem to be an increasing problem, and is causing an impaired quality of life for those affected (Socialstyrelsen, 2013). From a systemic perspective all members in the family are affected when one member is suffering from mental health problems. This study aims to describe what it is like to be a sibling and close relative to a child/adolescent suffering from mental health problems.

    Question formulation: How did the child acquire knowledge about the siblings mental health problems? How does the child experience the relationship to the sibling with a mental health problem? How is the child dealing with the emotional experience?

    Method: A qualitative study with data collected through interviews with five children age 8 – 11 years old. The interviewees all had siblings who were treated in a child psychiatric clinic at the time of the interviews. The data was analyzed with a thematic analyses.

    Result: The children in the study express little knowledge about their siblings mental health problems. They describe their sibling as odd, sometimes threatening and tell about lots of trouble and conflicts at home. Conflicts are verbal as well as physical. The children’s stories show that they deal with the difficult situations in different ways. Some of the children withdraw and spend time by themselves, other seek security with their parents, other siblings or just goes to friends. The children express affection with their siblings although they are also very angry with them at the same time. Being together with the family and doing activities together is something that all children value.

    Discussion: The result of this study is connected to previous research showing that having a sibling with mental health problems or disabilities can have both positive and negative consequences. For the sibling it is not the type or severity of the disease or mental health problem that determine how the child is affected, but rather the extent of emotional support from the family and their environment.

  • 42.
    Västberg, Helen
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Familjeperspektivet på BVC: En kvalitativ studie om BVC-sköterskors erfarenheter i sitt arbete med barns psykiska hälsa och utveckling2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the BVC nurses' experience of using the family perspective to highlight children's mental health and development. The relevance stems from the child health care in Sweden has a unique opportunity and challenge in terms of both preventive and therapeutic work with families.

    The study is based on qualitative interviews with five childcare nurses from three different child healthcare centers in Stockholm. The collected data was processed with thematic analysis. The results show several challenges that arise in the work of meeting family-related issues. It is both experiences of lack of skills, a frustration about not knowing where to turn with families when identifying deficiencies in for example mental health. The results also show the importance of working in these fields, despite the difficulties, not least from developmental psychological aspects. The results are in line with theory and current research and raise questions about how well the child health care mission is fulfilled.

  • 43.
    Walan, Jenny
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Psykodynamisk psykoterapi och andlig vägledning: erfarenheter av likhet och olikhet2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is to investigate the similarities and differences between psychodynamic psychotherapy and spiritual direction based on the experience of those who meet people both in psychotherapy and in spiritual direction, and to increase the understanding of both similarities and differences between the methods.Questions: How are similarities and differences between psychotherapy and spiritual direction experienced, how is the encounter with those seeking psychotherapy and spiritual direction experienced by those educated for and offering psychodynamic psychotherapy and spiritual direction?How are possible benefits and difficulties experienced with the dual roles, as psychotherapist and spiritual director?Method: Five qualitative interviews were conducted. The interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis with inductive approach in coding, thematization and analysis of collected data.Results: Study participants described that both methods are talking cures, that the quality of the interpersonal meeting is important and that the applicant seeks to gain insight about himself. Study participants described that the distinction between psychotherapy and spiritual direction was not always easy. The ability to differentiate spiritual direction and psychotherapy was described by participants lay in the view of spirituality. Study participants talked about the importance of dialogue between professionals with psychological and spiritual perspective.Discussion: Study participants did not provide unambiguous answers regarding similarity and dissimilarity between psychotherapy and spiritual direction. As the study participants hold the view of human beings as carrying both psychological and spiritual needs they risk ending up in a no man’s land between secular psychotherapy and confessional spiritual direction. Interpersonal warmth and empathy was described as the most important components of the meeting with the help seeking applicant.

  • 44.
    Wannfors, Ulrika
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Barnmorskors arbete med att uppmärksamma och främja relationen mellan mor och barn.: En studie om känslomässiga reaktioner efter förlossningen ur ett psykoanalytiskt perspektiv.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Close emotional bands develop between mother and child and begin already during pregnancy, several factors affect how this band develops. Fetal life and the first few hours after childbirth are important for the infant's emotional development.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate how midwives in post-natal care pay attention to emotional reactions in the mother, which these reactions are and how the midwives consider themselves to promote the relationship between mother and child.

    Issues: How do midwives describe that they pay attention to emotional reactions in the mother after childbirth, and what reactions are described? And how do midwives describe that they are working to promote the relationship between mother and child during the aftercare?

    Method: Five midwives working in the aftercare were interviewed based on a qualitative approach. The data collection method that has been used for this study is a semi-structured interview. The study material has been processed using an inductive thematic analysis.

    Result: What appears in the study is that midwives find it central to identify the woman's way of thinking about the child's needs and her ability to interpret the child's signals. The participants pay particular attention to those women where the emotional stress has been great after giving birth and can be assumed to need support.

    Discussion: Most studies and literature support what emerged from this study on the midwives' knowledge and experience about emotional reactions and its influence on the relationship between mother children. The mother's care for the child's needs and the midwife's work in promoting the relationship between these two can be interpreted as the concept of mentalization.

  • 45.
    Wasserman, Tobias
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Trons betydelse i psykoterapi.: En tematisk analys utifrån hur fem psykoterapeuter med vigningstjänst upplever tron i sitt kliniska arbete.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: There is a tension between secular and religious values.Psychotherapy has a secular foundation, while at the same time priests and pastorshave the opportunity to become psychotherapists. The aim of this paper is toexamine how psychotherapists with Christian religious beliefs view thesignificance of their faith in their psychotherapeutic profession.

    Question: How do psychotherapists with Christian religious beliefs feel that their faith impacts their clinical practice.

    Method: Five semi-structured interviews was held with licensed psychotherapistsordained in Christian ministry. The interviews were coded using a thematic,inductive analysis.

    Results: Four themes were found: (1) Pastors and priest as psychotherapists; (2) Religious or psychotherapeutic approach; (3) Relationship between psychologyand spirituality; (4) Trust in god as support in the therapy process.

    Discussion: The results from the thematic analysis are discussed using Attachment theory and the non-repressed unconscious, leading to aninterpretation in terms of trust, difficulties in the transference and god related todescriptions of reality.

  • 46.
    Wimmermark, Agneta
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Drivkrafter och en psykoterapeutisk process på vägen att bli psykoterapeut2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: What forces, apparent and hidden drive the future psychotherapist to take the first steps on the path to become a therapist and what forces drive hir to continue?. The aim of the study is to explore these impelling/motivating forces and the relevance of psychological process on that path. 

    Questions: How does the therapist describe these forces on hir way to become a therapist?Do they form a pattern to analyse? What is the relevance of a psychotherapeutic process on that path?

    Method: The study is hermeneutic, phenomenological in a narrative perspective, based on semi structured interviews in depth with open questions. The resulting material was organized in themes.  

    Results: While working with the study an emerging pattern has become clearer: the impelling forces, interlaced with the existential struggle between ratio, rational reasoning and emotional truth can be interpreted as a psychotherapeutic process.  

    Discussion: The impelling forces in the study give together a picture of life’s fundamental struggle between ratio, intellectual reasoning and emotional truth. These forces also give the picture of the therapeutic process as a path and hub in the therapists training and life, an individual, personal labour of integrating theory, experience and method. The use of poetic citations, little arrows in the theoretical, logical texts in the study illustrate the emotional side of the human being interlaced with the logical and rational. This process is a task of mending, reconciliation and healing. It means selfexamination, a personal integration of theory, experience and personality leading to a sense of identity. The psychotherapeutic process with personal therapy and counselling leads on to a further search for the origins of the compelling forces, their foundations and roots. A path with a goal but no end.

  • 47.
    Yarandpour, Golli
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Unga vuxnas upplevelse av livet med pappa efter militärt utlandsuppdrag2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: An overseas service in the defense forces is no single concern of the defense staff, but affects the entire family. Research shows that when parents leave the children for military service abroad, the child's mood and ability to cope with a period of separation greatly depending on how the child’s life is in general. Based on the understanding and interpretation of previous research, this study will see into how it’s manifested for these children to continue to live a life with their father after military foreign missions. Is it possible for the relationship to repair completely, re-attach and return to the roles that the family system once had, or is there more complications?

    Question: How is life portrayed for young adults to live with their father after his military missions abroad?

    Method used in this research for carrying out semi-structured interviews are qualitative approach, where six respondents, three men two women participated. The collected data were analyzed with thematic analysis with inductive approach. What is described is the phenomenon; respondents' thoughts, experiences and feelings about their own subjective experience and its meaning in their life.

    The results are linked to the three main themes: separation from the parent, the impact of military missions abroad to the system and re-attachment with the father. There are also eight sub-themes that collectively describe the respondents' subjective experience. Respondents perceive a lack of openness in the dialogue and communication between their father and themselves regarding the subject of the father's international assignment as military. The separation has touched the respondents in varied way, but the general opinion is that respondents also believe that the father's decision to go on military assignments abroad affected the entire family system, not least, the role changes and frictions that arise as a consequence. 

    Discussion: The relational problems are consequences of previous attachment failures. Repairing the communication to their father enables re-attachment, which can improve the relational difficulties between the father and the young adult. When communication in adulthood increased the respondents had the opportunity to express the emotions associated with the separation that can act as a healing effect on the relationship and association with their father.

  • 48.
    Åstrand, Katarina
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Egenterapins påverkan på lärande och utveckling av psykoterapeutisk kompetens2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate psychodynamic psychotherapists' experiences of the influence of personal therapy on professional development during training with a focus on acquisition of knowledge and development of psychotherapeutic skills. Semi structured interviews were conducted with eight former students at two training institutes for psychodynamic psychotherapy. Thematic analysis was conducted on the material. Personal therapy was found to have a positive effect on learning and professional development by promoting the emergence of a theory and knowledge based professional subjectivity, a personally founded, professional attitude. Important elements of this development were shared experience, personal influence and knowledge integration. The emergence of professional subjectivity proved to be a vital factor in terms of professional advancement for future psychotherapists. Finding and relating to their own subjectivity was crucial in the process of developing a personally founded, professional attitude in clinical work. 

  • 49.
    Österlöf, Christine
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Sociala Medier - en källa till konflikt?: En pilotstudie om vilken inverkan sociala medier har på dynamiken i romantiska relationer2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The continuing growth of social media during the last decade has resulted in an increased interest in what affect it has on our romantic relationships. Existing research using quantitative methods has suggested a correlation between excessive use of social media and an increase in feelings of jealousy and loneliness. This qualitative study of interviews with five young adults aims to examine in what ways the use of social media can be seen affect romantic relationships. Beyond confirming earlier findings, the study shows that the effect of social media on romantic relationships primarily is as a magnifier of pre-existing relational problems and a catalyst for potential relational difficulties. Among those problems described by the participants are an increase in distrust and suspicion, an increased need for control/supervision of one’s partner together with the experience of competing with social media for the attention of the significant other. Furthermore, the participants experienced that the strength of an individual’s self-esteem plays an important role regarding the degree of likelihood with which these problems arise within the relationship. The study also shows how the possible effect that frequent social media usage may have on the relationship in the long term is a question that is given much consideration by the participants.

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